Test Sentences, 136

July 24th, 2014 by Sylvia Sotomayor

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. The dress of the little princess was embroidered with roses, the national flower of the Country.

Well, no country, so no national flowers. And no princesses. Sorry, Puey. I could come up with a rough paraphrase, but it wouldn’t include that phrase modifying roses. Bah. Let’s look at a few more:

  1. They wore red caps, the symbol of liberty.
  2. With him as our protector, we fear no danger.
  3. All her finery, lace, ribbons, and feathers, was packed away in a trunk.
  4. Light he thought her, like a feather.

I could probably come up with something for 177. It wouldn’t be a symbol of liberty, though. 178 I can do, though it would be two clauses. 179? Oh dear. Lace? No. Trunks are also problematical. At this point I am spending more time trying to twist the vocabulary into something my conculture might actually have that it is getting out of hand. Then we get to 180, and I am ready to call it quits. No. Just, no. I think I have come to the end of this exercise. I’ve already identified several places where my grammar needs serious work. I think that rather than go on, I will quit. I will go on vacation, I will come back. I will contemplate the deficiencies of my current grammar. I will hopefully come up with cures for those deficiencies. I will do some more work on vocabulary. Someone has a conlanger’s thesaurus, right? :-)

Then after all that I will probably revisit this exercise, revising what I already have and doing more sentences per post.

Test Sentences, 135

July 23rd, 2014 by Sylvia Sotomayor

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. Sit here by yourself.

This is another one that looks like a reflexive but isn’t really.

176. ŋidi tɛndɛ susi naddeya ka.

ŋidi
2P.MTsg
tɛndɛ
tɛndɛ.IMP
susi
here
naddeya
by oneself
ka
CMD

Questions?

brush is haruila

July 23rd, 2014 by Mariska
haruila = brush (noun) (some things Google found for "haruila": a rare term; a very rare first name; appears as bad OCR in a handful of scanned old documents; similar Harvila is a rare last name; in Slovakia similar haruľa is a type of potato pancake dish)

Word derivation for "brush"
Basque = eskuila, Finnish = harja
Miresua = haruila

This the Mirusua word for a brush for cleaning and arranging hair, but not a paint brush. Both Basque and Finnish appear to have other words for a paint brush.

The word brush occurs in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, but it refers to a paint brush. The word brush occurs as a verb in Through the Looking-glass, and as a noun in the quote in the previous post and in this sentence following it.
Alice carefully released the brush, and did her best to get the hair into order.

Test Sentences, 134

July 22nd, 2014 by Sylvia Sotomayor

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. I feel ashamed of myself.

This is not actually a reflexive, or rather, it doesn’t have to be. As a simpler “I am ashamed”, we have “I go about in shame.”

175. lene eyaŋi iɬɛt.

lene
1P.MTsg
ey-
in
aŋi
aŋi.IMP
iɬɛt
shame.SSsg

But then I asked myself how would I say “I am ashamed of him.”

lene mava iɬɛtnɛn ono.

lene
1P.MTsg
mava
3P.MTsg
iɬɛt
shame.SSsg
-nɛn
with
ono
ono

Which means one could say:

175. lenada iɬɛtnɛn ono.

lenada
1P.MTsg.REFL
iɬɛt
shame.SSsg
-nɛn
with
ono
ono

but the previous sentence is more likely to be found in the wild (so to speak).

Questions?

Test Sentences, 133

July 21st, 2014 by Sylvia Sotomayor

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. He proved himself trustworthy.
  2. We could see ourselves in the water.
  3. Do it yourself.

More reflexives. The first one is closer to “He made himself trustworthy.” The last one translates really to “Go by yourself”.

172. mahanɨt gɛnada omɛt.

mahanɨt
3P.MTsg
gɛnada
trustworthy.MTsg
omɛt
ɛmɛmɛ.PRF

173. le doŋi lɛnnanada tono gadava kadeya.

le
1P
doŋi
eye.MTsg
lɛnnanada
1P.MTpl.REFL
tono
ono.PRF
gadava
water.SSsg
kadeya
reflectedly

174. ŋivaŋya tɨŋi ka.

ŋivaŋya
2P.MTsg.REFL
tɨŋi
tɨŋi.IMP
ka
CMD

Questions?

Playing with sound changes

July 21st, 2014 by carsten

People sometimes ask me if I wouldn’t be tired of working on Ayeri for 10 years already, but hm … to me, it’s like a good old friend, kind of. However, I’ve been playing around with sound changes a little before to maybe make a dialect or just fast-forward the whole thing or whatever in order to branch out for some new things. Here’s one such attempt that was at the back of my head and that I worked out last night. I kind of like the results, so maybe I’ll keep them for a dialect that I could still flesh out more later.

Variables
V = {i, iː, e, eː, a, aː, o, oː, u}
C = {p, t, k, b, d, g, m, n, ŋ, v, s, h, r, l, j, tʃ, dʒ}
N = {m, n, ŋ}
P = {t, k, d, g, s, l, j}

Raising and backing of /j/ between vowels
j → g / V_V

Vowels lower before nasals, then get lengthened as nasal drops out; apocope after nasal for multi-syllabic words
V → V̞ / _N
V → Ø / N_# except #C_
VN → Vː / _N except _NV

Diphthongs monophthongize
aʊj → aʊ / _
aʊ → uː / _
ʊɪ → iː / _
{aɪ, aːɪ, eɪ} → eː / {_C, _#}
ɔɪ → eː / _C
{V₁ːV₁ː, V₁ːV₁, V₁V₁ː, Vːː} → V₁ː / _

Palatalization
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}}
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_}
i → Ø / _Pʲ except {_CC, #(C)(C)_}

Phonetic realization of /Pʲ/:
{tʲ, tj, kʲ, kj} → tʃ
{dʲ, dj, gʲ, gj, jʲ, jj} → dʒ
{sʲ, sj} → ʃ
{lʲ, lj} → j
{ttʃ, dtʃ, tʃʃ} → tʃ
{ddʒ, tdʒ, dʃʃ} → dʒ

Some examples

〈Ayeri〉 /ajeri/
‘Ayeri’
j → g / V_V (ageri)
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}} (agʲeri),
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_} (agʲiri),
i → Ø / _Pʲ except {_CC, #(C)(C)_} (agʲiri)
〈Ajiri〉 /adʒiri/
〈narān〉 /naraːn/
‘word, language’
V → Ø / N_# except #C_ (naraːn),
VN → Vː / _N except _NV (naraːː),
{V₁ːV₁ː, V₁ːV₁, V₁V₁ː, Vːː} → V₁ː / _ (naraː)
〈narā〉 /naraː/
〈ja〉 /dʒa/
‘zero’
Ø 〈ja〉 /dʒa/
〈men〉 /men/
‘one’
V → V̞ / _N (man),
VN → Vː / _N except _NV
〈mā〉 /maː/
〈sam〉 /sam/
‘two’
VN → Vː / _N except _NV 〈sā〉 /saː/
〈kay〉 /kaɪ/
‘three’
{aɪ, aːɪ, eɪ} → eː / {_C, _#} (keː),
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}} (kʲeː),
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_} (kʲiː),
i → Ø / _Pʲ except {_CC, #(C)(C)_} (kʲiː)
〈cī〉 /tʃiː/
〈yo〉 /jo/
‘four’
Ø 〈yo〉 /jo/
〈iri〉 /iri/
‘five’
Ø 〈iri〉 /iri/
〈miye〉 /mije/
‘six’
j → g / V_V (mige),
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}} (migʲe),
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_} (migʲi),
i → Ø / _Pʲ except {_CC, #(C)(C)_} (migʲi)
〈miji〉 /midʒi/
〈ito〉 /ito/
‘seven’
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}} (itʲo),
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_} (itʲo),
i → Ø / _Pʲ except {_CC, #(C)(C)_} (tʲo)
〈co〉 /tʃo/
〈hen〉 /hen/
‘eight’
V → V̞ / _N (han),
VN → Vː / _N except _NV
〈hā〉 /haː/
〈veya〉 /veja/
‘nine’
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}} (vejʲa),
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_} (vijʲa),
i → Ø / _Pʲ except {_CC, #(C)(C)_} (vijʲa)
〈vija〉 /vidʒa/
〈mal〉 /mal/
‘ten’
Ø 〈mal〉 /mal/
〈tam〉 /tam/
‘eleven’
VN → Vː / _N except _NV 〈tā〉 /taː/
〈lan〉 /lan/
‘twelve’
VN → Vː / _N except _NV 〈lā〉 /laː/
〈badan〉 /badan/
‘father’
VN → Vː / _N except _NV 〈badā〉 /badaː/
〈māva〉 /maːva/
‘mother’
Ø 〈māva〉 /maːva/
〈ayon〉 /ajon/
‘man, husband’
j → g / V_V (agon)
V → V̞ / _N (agan),
VN → Vː / _N except _NV
〈agā〉 /agaː/
〈envan〉 /envan/
‘woman, wife’
V → V̞ / _N (anvan),
VN → Vː / _N except _NV
〈āvā〉 /aːvaː/
〈yan〉 /jan/
‘boy, son’
VN → Vː / _N except _NV 〈jā〉 /jaː/
〈lay〉 /laɪ/
‘girl, daughter’
{aɪ, aːɪ, eɪ} → eː / {_C, _#} 〈lē〉 /leː/
〈netu〉 /netu/
‘brother’
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}} (netʲu),
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_} (nitʲu),
i → Ø / _Pʲ except {_CC, #(C)(C)_} (nitʲu)
〈nicu〉 /nitʃu/
〈kina〉 /kina/
‘sister’
V → V̞ / _N (kena),
V → Ø / N_# except #C_ (ken),
VN → Vː / _N except _NV (keː),
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}} (kʲeː),
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_} (kʲiː)
〈cī〉 /tʃiː/
〈sinya〉 /sinja/
‘who, what’
V → V̞ / _N (senja),
VN → Vː / _N except _NV (seːja),
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}} (sʲeːjʲa),
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_} (sʲijʲa),
i → Ø / _Pʲ except {_CC, #(C)(C)_} (sʲijʲa)
〈śija〉 /ʃidʒa/
〈siyan〉 /sijan/
‘where’
j → g / V_V (sigan),
VN → Vː / _N except _NV (sigaː),
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}} (),
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_} (sʲigʲaː),
i → Ø / _Pʲ except {_CC, #(C)(C)_} (sʲigʲaː)
〈śijā〉 /ʃidʒaː/
〈sitaday〉 /sitadaɪ/
‘when’
{aɪ, aːɪ, eɪ} → eː / {_C, _#} (sitadeː),
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}} (sʲitadʲeː),
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_} (sʲitadʲi),
i → Ø / _Pʲ except {_CC, #(C)(C)_} (sʲitadʲ)
〈śitaj〉 /ʃitadʒ/
〈sikay〉 /sikaɪ/
‘how (circumstance)’
{aɪ, aːɪ, eɪ} → eː / {_C, _#} (sikeː),
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}} (sʲikʲeː),
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_} (sʲikʲiː)
〈śicī〉 /ʃitʃiː/
〈simin〉 /simin/
‘how (way)’
V → V̞ / _N (semen),
VN → Vː / _N except _NV (semeː)
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}} (sʲemeː),
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_} (sʲimeː)
〈śimē〉 /ʃimeː/
〈sinyisa〉 /sinjisa/
‘why’
V → V̞ / _N (senjisa),
V → Ø / N_# except #C_ (se:jisa),
P → Pʲ / {{i, iː, e, eː} _, _ {i, iː, e, eː}} (sʲeːjʲisʲa),
{i, e} → i / {_Pʲ, Pʲ_} (sʲijʲisʲa),
i → Ø / _Pʲ except {_CC, #(C)(C)_} (sʲijʲsʲa)
〈śija〉 /ʃidʒa/

Seems like I recreated Brazilian Portuguese to some degree … Also, vowel length is now even more phonemic. Question words have also been thoroughly shaken up: sinya ‘who, what’ → śija; sinyisa ‘why’ → śija; siyan ‘where’ → śijā (yano ‘place’ → yān). However, looking at a whole sentence, I think palatalization isn’t as frequent as it seems (I hope I applied the rules above correctly …):

Ya sahaya lanyāng gino nanga, sa silvyāng patas si ang tahaya bilingley vinaya, lāya nay bantaya yana, nay lanyāng sigi. Ang praysaya tupoyas kayvo runuya-ikan, nay saraya patasang.

Ya sahaga lānā jī nā, sa śiyvyā patas śi ā tahaga biyīyī venaga, lāga nē bātaga yā, nē lāyā śiji. Ā prīśaga tupogas cīvo ronuga-icā, nē saraga patasā.

Note that this treats inflected stems as units even though Ayeri is very agglutinative, but why not.

Dothraki at Comic-Con

July 21st, 2014 by David Peterson

If you’re heading down to San Diego for Comic-Con this year, be sure to stop by the Random House booth (booth #1515) on Friday and Saturday from 3-4 p.m. I’ll be there in support of the upcoming Living Language Dothraki book (which you can pre-order now). If you come by and practice your Dothraki I’ll have prizes to give out! I’m not sure what the prizes are because I haven’t seen them, but I bet they will be worth having. Because I want them. And I’m’a get them, too, because I can speak Dothraki. You feel me?

Anyway, if you prefer info in party-invitation-style-list form, here it is:

  • WHAT: Dothraki language practice
  • WHO: Me and you
  • WHERE: San Diego Comic-Con, Booth 1515 in the Random House LLC block (.pdf map)
  • WHEN: Friday, July 25th, 3-4 p.m. and Saturday, July 26th, 3-4 p.m.
  • WHY: Because conlang.
  • HOW: Ambulatorily
  • HOW MANY: Very good question. I have no idea. We’ll see, I guess.

Anha zalak m’anha atihak yera rekke!

Test Sentences, 132

July 20th, 2014 by Sylvia Sotomayor

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. I hurt myself.
  2. She was talking to herself.

These are reflexives, in the sense that the same argument appears in two different roles. For reflexives (subject to change) the pronoun is not repeated, but suffixed with a reflexive suffix that varies by person and noun class (which is a touch of whimsy on my part).

170. lenada otni tude.

lenada
1P.MTsg.REFL
otni
tɨŋi.PRF
tude
hurt.MTsg

171. mahanɨt deya duso.

mahanɨt
3P.MTsg.REFL
deya
something.MTsg
duso
duso.IMP

Questions?

Test Sentences, 131

July 19th, 2014 by Sylvia Sotomayor

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. The little girl made the doll’s dress herself.

The first is similar to the previous two. On the surface it looks like it has a reflexive, but really, that means by herself or alone. Also, I am also going to simplify doll’s dress to doll.

169. laki ɨsa gyɛdɨdɛn omɛt naddeya dɛstɛ.

laki
girl.MTsg
ɨsa
little.MTsg
gyɛdɨdɛn
doll.MTsg
omɛt
ɛmɛmɛ.PRF
naddeya
by herself
dɛstɛ
I’m told

Questions?

comb is kamori

July 19th, 2014 by Mariska
kamori = comb (noun) (some things Google found for "kamori": a uncommon term; a popular breed of goat in Sindh province of Pakistan; Kamori Kanko Co. Ltd. is a Japanese company operating hotels and amusement parks mainly in Hokkaido, Japan; an unusual last name; an rare first name that is usually feminine; name of place in Japan; Kamori Also is the name of a place in Hungary)

Word derivation for "comb"
Basque = orrazi, Finnish = kampa
Miresua = kamori

I usually post words on a regular schedule, but I missed doing the previous post. I simply got busy doing other stuff. Instead of throwing together a word late and tweaking the post's date, I decided to resume today after a short break.

The word comb isn't in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, but it occurs in Through the Looking-glass.
...Alice said, as she gently put it right for her; "and, dear me, what a state your hair is in!"

"The brush has got entangled in it!" the Queen said with a sigh. "And I lost the comb yesterday."