August 27th, 2016 by Andio
Há!!! Thanks to the people of for aggregate me to your blog. It makes me very happy to be part of your community of conlangers. I want to repeat that I have a name, I have a nickname, and I have a pseudonym, but as a conlanger I'd like to be known as Ál, with accute accent, which is pronounced /áil/ in the language I created, Al, which is pronounced /ál/. I also want to repeat that I was born and raised in Mendoza, Argentina, and although I speak English fluently, I'm not an expert, so please forgive any mistake. Said that, let's continue with the language.

In the first post, I commented that I created several words out of English words containing a long A (I want my language to be a real and viable offspring of English, Al is a language of the future of Mankind): "L" from "life", "T" from "time", and so on. Well, now it would be the same, but what English speaking people know as "long A", in Al is "á", since the accute accent is an /i/ after the vowel over it is found. Thus, "my life" is "lá" /lái/, "my time" is "tá" /tái/, "hi" is "há" /hái/, "bye" is "bá" /bái/, and so on (because of that, I wrote "há" instead of "hi", and because of that too, from now on I'm gonna say hello with "há" and goodbye with "bá"). What I've made with the accute accent ( ´ ) is something that I did with all the other diacritics on Al: dieresis or umlaut ( ¨ ) is an /u/, circumflex ( ˆ ) is an /a/, grave accent ( ` ) is an /o/, and tilde ( ˜ ) is an /e/.

This is something that I think I must thank to be living in a non-English country, where my keyboard is plenty of diacritics, and also my cell phone. If you want to use all this diacritics, you have to set your keyboard to "Español (alfabetización internacional)". You will have Ñ to the right of L, then the accute and umlaut, and then Ç, and up, to the right of P, you will have the grave and circumflex. Tilde is Alt Gr 4 followed by A (Ãã) or O (Õõ). In the case of I, U and E, there are ways, but if you're not a geek, you may just use I'i', U'u' and E'e'.

Well, I think it's enough information for today. One more time, thanks to the people of for aggregate me to your blog. Bá!!!

Dairwueh: Person-Specific Quirky Case

August 27th, 2016 by Miekko
Certain verbs in Dairwueh have no forms for some set of persons, generally one or both of first and second person. Most of these in fact only have third person singular forms.

The entries below are given as root (meaning) (persons missing) case.
mogar (rot) (I, II) acc
ebas (lose, misplace) (I) dat
konav  (bequeath to*) (I) acc
atisal (physically reach, have sufficient stature to reach something) (I, II) gen
embor (appear to be) (IIsg) loc-instr
adval (displease) (Isg, IIsg) acc
saŋəst (remain) (Isg) loc-instr
lohak (fear) (Isg, Ipl, IIpl) dat
All of these do permit having first and second person subjects, however. These, however, require oblique marking. The oblique marking will also extend to nouns coordinated or apposite to such a subject.
it rots
I rot
These kinds of subjects, unlike the nominative ones, require the 3sg II verb. As mentioned, coordination and apposition do also get affected:

I, the king, bequeath nothing
Contrast with the situation where only a third person subject is present:
with dissimilation of -rir
the king bequeathed (his) power to (his) daughter
Note that erha is in the genitive because it's a transitive verb with a definite subject - a slightly ergative pattern in Dairwueh. Contrast with the following, where both a first person and a third person NP is present - the first person pronoun that has to take accusative as subject of this verb also makes the other noun do so:
 I and the king appeared to be fighting/enemies
Contrast to the next clause, where both subjects are third person, and therefore do trigger person/number congruence, and do not have any curious case marking:



the king and the tribes appeared to be enemies
Since embor is intransitive, erha is in the nominative despite being definite.

* The noun to whom something is bequeathed is marked by the preposition gir, 'along, through'.

Detail #306: Pronoun as Comparison Strategy

August 25th, 2016 by Miekko
This is, I think, a new comparison strategy. Consider a pronoun that indicates that a thing is being compared. I'll be using italicized comp as this pronoun:
Between John, between Eric, the company relies on comp_masc,sg.
 Between X between Y is considered to be similar to how Biblical Hebrew forms 'between', i.e. both nouns are preceded by the same preposition, possibly with an and, i.e. "between X and between Y".

If the compared things differ in gender, comp can by gender congruence relate to either of the nouns. For nouns of the same gender, the first noun is the more X:
between the brother and between the sister, their mother wants comp.fem.dat the painting as inheritance
the mother prefers that her daughter gets the painting as inheritance
between John and between Eric, comp.masc.nom is strong.
John is stronger than Eric

between Tor and between Sven, she likes comp.masc.acc
she likes Tor more than she likes Sven

between Schylla and between Charybdis, comp.fem.nom scares me
Schylla scares me more than Charybdis (does)

between John and between Tina, comp.fem.nom plays the guitar well
Tina plays the guitar better than John


August 24th, 2016 by Andio
Hi! I have a name, I have a nickname, and I have a pseudonym, but as a conlanger I'd like to be known as Ál, with accute accent, which is pronounced /áil/ in the language I created, Al, which is pronounced /ál/. I was born and raised in Mendoza, Argentina, and although I speak English fluently, I'm not an expert, so please forgive any mistake. Said that, let's go to the language.

The name Al, along with the word "al", means the same thing: "Our Language". As you'd have divine, the "A" is for "Our" and the "L" is for "Language". And my pseudonym, Ál, pronounced /áil/, along with the word "ál", with accute accent ( ´ ), means also the same thing: "One Who Speaks Our Language".

I started creating this language about ten years ago, as a hobby, when I didn't have any idea of how big the conlang movement was or will be. That's why I spended most of these years doing nothing but spinning around unsubstantious matters.

Until the arrival of Twitter. As a Spanish writing person, I'm familiar with the invariable frustration of been always short of space with nothing more than 140 characters. I felt happy every time I had to write a tweet in English, since I was plenty of space with that language. Then, one day, I decided to create a language even briever than English, and the name of such language was going to be "La", honoring the premise of brevity. Later on, I became a fan of the letter A, and thus the name of the language mutate onto "Al".

The meaning of the name "La" was simply "Language" or "A Language". But then one day I watch the movie Hero, and when the warrior writes two chinese characters (Tiānxià) meaning "Our Land", I fancy my language to be able to say "Our Language" in one only word of two characters too; hence, from that day on, the "L" became "Language" and the "A" became "Our". And when I became fan of the letter A, it was just a matter of switching places.

I spended another lot of years with pronouns and numbers, instead of enlarging my language's vocabulary. Once, about three or four years ago, I was able of creating a little vocabulary with words containing a long A: L for life, T for time, and so on. But that idea didn't flourish. I got stuck with the whim of making that a phrase like "I know you love me" was as brief as "Núm", pronounced /niúim/. In fact, I still want that to happen, but I find out how to get free of that quagmire.

I'm gonna finish this first post and I'm gonna send this blog's address to, as said. I really want to see this blog entry on because when I see that, I'll know other people will know about my language; otherwise, I fear nobody will ever notice about anything regarding my language.If they don't aggregate me soon, I'm gonna make another post with more data about my language, in the hope for them to aggregate me as soon as possible. Bye!!! Ál

Detail #305: Social-Status Demonstrative Quality Pronouns

August 24th, 2016 by Miekko
In languages with great amounts of social stratification, where this stratification has been grammaticalized, consider pronouns and determiners with meanings along the lines of
such a/such __s
a similar thing
the same
Now, consider having pronouns meaning things like
a person of
  • the same social status 
  • similar social status  
  • different social status
  • any social status
 So, now we have pronouns signifying:
  • statuswise, such a ...
  • statuswise, another kind of
  • statuswise, a similar kind of
  • statuswise, any kind of
This could be an interesting dimension for a language to seep into.

A Musical Notation

August 23rd, 2016 by Miekko
Consider a culture of polyphonic improvization where the conductor has a sign language, using the position of the left and right arm to communicate what two of the voices do (probably the middle ones), and the left and right hands to communicate what the top and bottom voices do. Reading the middle lines' meanings requires being able first to read the top and bottom line symbols, because the arm position basically communicated how the middle voices' movements relate to the top and bottom ones.

This system is later on turned into a notation system, whereby each symbol consists of partial symbols for arm position, arm movement, hand signs and so on, so you basically get a series of very stylized 'conductors', with each conductor representing a pulse of the rhythm. Omissions of partial symbols may either mean 'silence' or 'continue previous pitch', depending on stylistic conventions. Sometimes it is unclear which is meant.

Notation for dynamics are done by simply bolding or weakening the lines - this does not, though, communicate which particular voice(s) is (/ are) strengthened or weakened.

As in most conducted musics, the facial expressions and other aspects of body language are interpreted by singers as well, and may sometimes be expressed by stylized faces inserted before a symbol. There is a convention as to what direction the eyes of the stylized faces are directed to direct an instruction at some particular voice.

Link: Ayeri Grammar GitHub Repo

August 22nd, 2016 by carsten

This place has been going rather quiet for the past 2 months, but that doesn’t mean I haven’t been working on Ayeri—quite the opposite, in fact. While there hasn’t been much activity here on this blog, a lot more is currently going on at the Ayeri Grammar repository on the code-sharing site, GitHub.

I’ve been trying to add a few pages every day for the past 7 weeks so that I am currently at about 110 pages (examples and tables take up so much space!). Since the whole thing is quite a bit in flux, I don’t want to give a straight download link to the fully compiled document yet, but you can nonetheless take a look at everything I’ve written so far.

#305: Telling Time

August 21st, 2016 by Miekko
In non-earth conworlds, telling time could use non-number-based lexemes. Consider giving hours or their analogies their own names, and giving names to various intervals of time as well.

Beyond this, special times on special days may have their own designations, so e.g. the midnight hour on midsummer has its own specific designation, and would not be referred to in the singular by the same name as other 'hours' at the same time.

In the plural for each "general" hour, the specific exceptions are included, though. Here's some space for fun things: if the language has mandatory definiteness marking, maybe definite 'hours' (which yet are indefinite based on the discourse) exclude the special-name hours, while indefinite hours include special-name hours; finally, discourse-definite definite hours of course only refer to particular hours that have been specified previously.

Sargaĺk: A Common Saying and some Grammar

August 21st, 2016 by Miekko
mist od kaməŕtat od (tućś): all our oars (are still here)
"All", od is a bit peculiar, in appearing both to the left and right of the core NP it represents. In the nominative, it takes its head noun in the pegative, whereas in all other cases, it takes its head noun in the relevant case. With the other cases, the first od- also is marked for congruence. In the plural, for the nominative and pegative the head noun is plural for animates, but singular for all other nouns. With other cases, it is singular throughout, even if the semantics of the situation is plural.

Od is also closely related to the word odka- which signifies 'the whole, all of the (sg), a full, etc'.

tućś signifies 'still, yet, continuously, at least up to now, now'.


August 21st, 2016 by matan-matika

While many languages have a class of pronouns, why not try a class of slightly more amateur nouns?