Lexember 11th: ásëno, “change (tr.)”

December 11th, 2018 by Wm

On a whim I have decided that Kílta has unrelated lexical items for the transitive (ásëno /ʔaː.ˈsə.no/) and intransitive (volko) sense of change.

Nirika në mëmítotá si ásëno hír.
war TOP plans ACC change.PFV AS.EXPECTED
The war changed the plans.

The final particle hír marks things the speaker sees as expected or predictable.

Ël në ta lícha li vurui ásëno?
3SG TOP that mess ABL how change.PFV
How did she change (it) from that mess?

I still haven't decided which root will be the source for derived nouns. Probably the intransitive version, but it needs thinking about.

I also might want to add some nuance to the causative of the intransitive, volkëno.

Lexember 11th: ásëno, “change (tr.)”

December 11th, 2018 by Wm

On a whim I have decided that Kílta has unrelated lexical items for the transitive (ásëno /ʔaː.ˈsə.no/) and intransitive (volko) sense of change.

Nirika në mëmítotá si ásëno hír.
war TOP plans ACC change.PFV AS.EXPECTED
The war changed the plans.

The final particle hír marks things the speaker sees as expected or predictable.

Ël në ta lícha li vurui ásëno?
3SG TOP that mess ABL how change.PFV
How did she change (it) from that mess?

I still haven't decided which root will be the source for derived nouns. Probably the intransitive version, but it needs thinking about.

I also might want to add some nuance to the causative of the intransitive, volkëno.

Lexember 10th: volko “change (intr.)”

December 10th, 2018 by Wm

Another unexpected gap: volko /ˈvol.ko/ change, intransitive only (tomorrow will be the transitive version).

Ël në nahím chël volko.
3SG TOP mood very change.PFV
Her mood was much changed.

The end result of the change is marked with mai, the allative case,

Nihwa në manna vë lár si cholët, micha túm mai volko.
1SG TOP 3SG ATTR word ACC hear.CVB.PFV mind mush ALL change.PFV
After hearing what he said, my mind turned to mush.

Kílta has several first and third person pronouns. Nihwa I is used when you feel you're not completely in control of situation. Manna s/he refers to people who have some official power over you (bosses, political figures you might not consider legitimate). These pronoun distinctions are only made when the speaker feels they are relevant.

Lexember 10th: volko “change (intr.)”

December 10th, 2018 by Wm

Another unexpected gap: volko /ˈvol.ko/ change, intransitive only (tomorrow will be the transitive version).

Ël në nahím chël volko.
3SG TOP mood very change.PFV
Her mood was much changed.

The end result of the change is marked with mai, the allative case,

Nihwa në manna vë lár si cholët, micha túm mai volko.
1SG TOP 3SG ATTR word ACC hear.CVB.PFV mind mush ALL change.PFV
After hearing what he said, my mind turned to mush.

Kílta has several first and third person pronouns. Nihwa I is used when you feel you're not completely in control of situation. Manna s/he refers to people who have some official power over you (bosses, political figures you might not consider legitimate). These pronoun distinctions are only made when the speaker feels they are relevant.

Lexember 9th: ratímis, “ramada”

December 9th, 2018 by Wm

I will be hanging out in the Sonoran Desert in a few weeks, so I have desert vocabulary on my mind. A ramada is handy piece of protection from the sun. The Kílta word ratímis /ɾa.ˈtiː.mis/ ramada is a lexical diminutive of ratímës forest canopy, which is in turn a compound of rata leaf + ímo hide, conceal. In Kílta any sort of roofed shelter with open walls can be a ratímis. It needn't be desert protection only.

Avur në ratímis nen naulur li itirat no.
1PL TOP ramada LOC friend.PL ABL wait-for.INF be.PFV
We'll wait for our friends in (or at) the ramada.

The infinitive with the copula no creates the future. Well, one of Kílta's futures.

Lexember 9th: ratímis, “ramada”

December 9th, 2018 by Wm

I will be hanging out in the Sonoran Desert in a few weeks, so I have desert vocabulary on my mind. A ramada is handy piece of protection from the sun. The Kílta word ratímis /ɾa.ˈtiː.mis/ ramada is a lexical diminutive of ratímës forest canopy, which is in turn a compound of rata leaf + ímo hide, conceal. In Kílta any sort of roofed shelter with open walls can be a ratímis. It needn't be desert protection only.

Avur në ratímis nen naulur li itirat no.
1PL TOP ramada LOC friend.PL ABL wait-for.INF be.PFV
We'll wait for our friends in (or at) the ramada.

The infinitive with the copula no creates the future. Well, one of Kílta's futures.

Lexember 8th: arta “dew”

December 8th, 2018 by Wm

Today's word is entirely in the service of extending a conceptual metaphor, WATER IS LIFE. The word is arta /ˈʔaɾ.ta/ dew.

Ëlá në arta kwan uralin chasirë.
3PL TOP dew INST wet do.IPFV
They're getting wet from the dew.

Because it usually appears on plants, the verb for dew developing is lairo grow,

Kinta rëtin arta lairo.
night much dew grow.PFV
At night a lot of dew settled.

Dovetailing with the SALT IS VITALITY metaphor, we get this expression,

In ches in arta si relo.
and salt and dew ACC carry.PFV
Everything's going great.

Literally, "I'm carrying salt and dew," but this is used to express that everything's going well, especially in health and by extension other material matters. Usually, just in ches in arta is sufficient to convey the message.

Lexember 8th: arta “dew”

December 8th, 2018 by Wm

Today's word is entirely in the service of extending a conceptual metaphor, WATER IS LIFE. The word is arta /ˈʔaɾ.ta/ dew.

Ëlá në arta kwan uralin chasirë.
3PL TOP dew INST wet do.IPFV
They're getting wet from the dew.

Because it usually appears on plants, the verb for dew developing is lairo grow,

Kinta rëtin arta lairo.
night much dew grow.PFV
At night a lot of dew settled.

Dovetailing with the SALT IS VITALITY metaphor, we get this expression,

In ches in arta si relo.
and salt and dew ACC carry.PFV
Everything's going great.

Literally, "I'm carrying salt and dew," but this is used to express that everything's going well, especially in health and by extension other material matters. Usually, just in ches in arta is sufficient to convey the message.

Lexember 7th: kwihin, “sharp, pointed; irritable”

December 7th, 2018 by Wm

An unexpected gap: kwihin /ˈkʷi.xin/ sharp, pointed. That is, it can refer to sharpness for both a blade and a point (a common enough polysemy):

Ën ausan në tanui kwihin no tul?
this blade TOP sufficiently sharp be.PFV Q
Is this knife sharp enough?

Ha në kwihin motiën kwan suillo.
1SG TOP sharp branch with jab.PFV
I jabbed it with a sharp stick.

When used referring to people, it means irritable.

Ël në kwihin ënni no rui.
3SG TOP irritable today be.PFV MIR
Wow, he's irritable today.

A word like this can regularly refer to some quality of pain, but I haven't yet decided if I'm going to use kwihin for that.

Lexember 7th: kwihin, “sharp, pointed; irritable”

December 7th, 2018 by Wm

An unexpected gap: kwihin /ˈkʷi.xin/ sharp, pointed. That is, it can refer to sharpness for both a blade and a point (a common enough polysemy):

Ën ausan në tanui kwihin no tul?
this blade TOP sufficiently sharp be.PFV Q
Is this knife sharp enough?

Ha në kwihin motiën kwan suillo.
1SG TOP sharp branch with jab.PFV
I jabbed it with a sharp stick.

When used referring to people, it means irritable.

Ël në kwihin ënni no rui.
3SG TOP irritable today be.PFV MIR
Wow, he's irritable today.

A word like this can regularly refer to some quality of pain, but I haven't yet decided if I'm going to use kwihin for that.