Test Sentences, 47

April 23rd, 2014 by Sylvia Sotomayor

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. The cover of the basket fell to the floor.

This one is fairly straightforward. The cover went from the basket down to the ground.

69. pede dolɨdɛn otni lɛkyi tadya.

pede
basket.SSsg
dolɨdɛn
cover.MTsg
otni
tɨŋi.PRF
lɛkyi
ground.SSpl
tadya
down

In Kēlen:

69. ñi jōl rū jacāona rā anlēci tā;

ñi
NI
jōl
top
from
jacāona
basket
to
anlēci
ground
down

Questions?

nervous is urdostur

April 23rd, 2014 by Mariska
urdostur = nervous (adjective) (some things Google found for "urdostur": an unique term: urdostur did not match any documents; similar urdost is user names; similar UrduStar.com is a Pakistani forum; similar Urdos is a town in south-western France)

Word derivation for "nervous":
Basque = urduri
Finnish = hermostunut   (hermo = nerve)
Miresua = urdostur

The word nervous occurs a handful of times in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
Here the Queen put on her spectacles, and began staring at the Hatter, who turned pale and fidgeted.

"Give your evidence," said the King; "and don't be nervous, or I'll have you executed on the spot."

Test Sentences, 46

April 22nd, 2014 by Sylvia Sotomayor

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. Many little girls with wreaths of flowers on their heads danced around the bonfire.

Now that is a fun subject. With a serial predicate, at least in sodna-lɛni.

Let’s start with the predicate. The girls are dancing and they are doing it around the campfire. (Campfire, bonfire, no diff, ok?) So they tɨŋi gyadad “go to dancing” and they nokili nolako dugaŋya “close to the campfire surroundingly”. And look, a verb of motion we haven’t used yet! kili in its most basic form means to go by a location rather than to a location. The girls aren’t in the campfire, they’re by it. Prefixing kili with noya means that they are close by it.

Now for the subject. The actual subject is many little girls. The rest is modifying that subject is one big phrase (or rather series of phrases). We can do that!

68. aŋo lakina ɨsna mavna olana ha nada bɛɬɛn da maladi otni gyadadi nokɨtti nolako dugaŋya dɛstɛ.

aŋo
many
lakina
girl.MTpl
ɨsna
little.MTpl
mavna
3p.MTpl
olana
head.MTpl
ha
PS
nada
each
bɛɬɛn
wreath.SSsg
da
PS
maladi
flower.SSpl
otni
tɨŋi.PRF
gyadad
dancing.SSpl
no-
close to
kɨtti
kili.PRF
nolako
campfire.SSsg
dugaŋya
surroundingly
dɛstɛ
I’m told

In Kēlen:

68. ñi malāki mīñi nā ma la sōlle pa jawāeli jamāli rū janāola āñ ānen anjāra;

ñi
NI
malāki
girls
mīñi
little
many
ma
who
la
LA
sōlle
their heads
pa
PA
jawāeli
rings
jamāli
flowery
RU
janāola
campfire
āñ
around
ānen
with
anjāra
dancing

Questions?

Test Sentences, 45

April 21st, 2014 by Sylvia Sotomayor

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. The little seeds waited patiently under the snow for the warm spring sun.

Here we have little seeds sitting with patience. And they are under the snow, and they are waiting for the warm sun in the spring. Right.

To sit under something involves tɛndɛ LOC tadya. To sit for some time, i.e. to wait, is tɛndɛ goɬi. We can combine those into tɛndɛ LOC tadya goɬi.

As for the warm spring sun, we could say that the seeds are sitting and then the sun comes. The clausal conjunction in this case would be ladi, which connects clauses in a sequence. I know that in an earlier sentence, the child waited for her father, and her father became a sessile source or purpose. The English sentence implies a purpose for the little seeds, but I don’t feel comfortable doing that in this sentence. Animate beings can have purpose. Inanimate objects do not do things for a purpose. Making the warm sun into a purpose would imply that without the warm sun the seeds would not sit there, they’d go do something else. But that is not true. They would sit there until the warm sun came.

With only a rainy season and a dry season, the snow comes in the rainy season, and the warmth comes with the turn of the seasons bɨɬɨs da hɨddɨŋi.

67. gyodi ɨsi ɛspenɛn tɛndɛ dolnavi tadya goɬi ladi loho kyala tɨŋi bɨɬɨs da hɨddɨŋi olaya dɛstɛ.

gyodi
seed.SSpl
ɨsi
little.SSpl
ɛspe
patience.SSsg
nɛn
with
tɛndɛ
tɛndɛ.IMP
dolnavi
snow.SSpl
tadya
under/down
goɬi
long time
ladi
and next
loho
sun.MTsg
kyala
warm.MTsg
tɨŋi
tɨŋi.IMP
bɨɬɨs da hɨddɨŋi
turn of the season
olaya
upwards
dɛstɛ
I’m told

In Kēlen:

67. la jajōþi jīñi ānen ankēspen sū anrōli tā ilaþ ñi malō macālle il jīlpēneha;

la
LA
jajōþi
seeds
jīñi
little
ānen
with
ankēspen
patience
at
anrōli
snows
under
ilaþ
and then
ñi
NI
malō
sun
macālle
warm
il
in
jīlpēneha
Spring

Questions?

The Valley of Thorns: A 5-Star Review!

April 21st, 2014 by Lorinda J Taylor
Back Cover, The Valley of Thorns
Feel free to print this!
       The prolific Marva Dasef (her Amazon Page) has now read and reviewed all three volumes (to date) of my series The Labors of Ki'shto'ba Huge-Head.  She gave this one 5 stars, and she doesn't dole out that many stars regularly.  If you want to read something of hers, I recommend The Witches of Galdorheim (see my review of the first volume, Bad Spelling).
       I'm not too worried about the spoilers, because if you recognize the medieval epic on which I based this story (and I've talked about that elsewhere), you'll know the outcome anyway.
 
Now here is Marva's review of The Valley of Thorns:
 
SOME SPOILERS HERE

       Given that I read and enjoyed the first two volumes of this epic series, I had no trepidations jumping into the third volume of the story of Ki'shto'ba and his doughty band of companions.
       Di'fa'kro'mi the Remembrancer (equivalent of a bard or story teller) having invented a written form of the termite language narrates the tale. In the first volume (the Battle for the Stolen Mother), we find Di'fa'kro'mi as an elderly person narrating the story to his scribe. Occasionally, Di'fa'kro'mi breaks out of the narrative to explain a few things to the scribe which were not directly observed by the Remembrancer. I liked these sections since the first person narrative would obviously not cover events where Di'fra'kro'mi was not present.
       In this volume, the companions travel to the Marcher lands where a war is on-going with another tribe of Shshi. The dispute is over religion, a common reason for war. Since Ki'shto'ba's twin, A'zhu'lo had become attached to the Marcher overlord, the Huge-Head reluctantly joins the Marcher side. Going into the Valley of the Thorns to aid a Marcher outpost, the war heats up. A truce is proposed, and the opposing Shshi even say they will switch their method of worship of the Great Mother in accordance with the Marcher beliefs. Unfortunately, it's a ruse with one of the Marcher generals becoming a turncoat.
       The subsequent battle when the traitor is discovered is bloody and vicious. Ki'shto'ba had been leading the way out of the Valley of the Thorns leaving its twin in the rear guard, which was totally destroyed.
       The death of his twin drives Ki'shto'ba mad and it ends up killing innocents in the heat of his insanity. This parallels the story of Hercules' madness and murders for which he must atone with the 12 labors. In the earlier volumes, Ki'shto'ba had already been set on the task of performing 12 wonders.
       I'm going on too long here and possibly introducing too many spoilers, so I'll end the description of the events (maybe I should be a Remembrancer myself).
       Again, I highly recommend this epic story. There are three volumes more according to Ms. Taylor. I will meet them head on and, hopefully, not be driven mad in the process of following the complex names, titles, objects, and places served to the reader in the Shshi language. By the end of the tale, I might very well have a working vocabulary of the marvelous con-lang (constructed language), Ms. Taylor has so carefully developed.
       Definitely start with volume 1 of the tale (you might also want to take on the Termite Queen first since Ki'shto'ba is first introduced in that series.
       Amazingly complex, yet solid storytelling. And, yes, I got misty-eyed at the death of A'zhu'lo. Is that a spoiler too?

Ćwarmin: The Noun morphology

April 20th, 2014 by Miekko
Note: this post is prone to corrections as I find errors or change details.

Ćwarmin, as previously stated, has a multitude of cases. It also has three numbers, and a slight definiteness distinction.

With a few exceptions, all nouns use the same suffixes for the cases. The main exceptions occur in some family member terms, some animal terms, some child-speak terms, pronouns,

Nominative
The indefinite nominative does not really have a particular suffix, although a fair share of nominatives do end in some similar suffixes, particularly -a or -kem. Not all nominatives ending in -a have an -a suffix though - the difference being that when inflected for other cases, the nominative ending is removed, and the non-suffix a is not.


The singular idefinite and definite are somewhat irregularly formed, as is the indefinite plural.


SingularPluralPaucal
Indefinite

-imin
Definite(-iti)-iweś-immal
Specific-itak-iwak-immal

Nominative Complement
The nominative complement ends in -ace or -amce in the singular. In the plural it affixes -ce to the plural marker -il. Paucal forms are mostly identical to plural, although a few pronouns and adjectives have a separate form formed by -imce.

No definiteness distinctions are made. (A few words exceptionally use the definite nominatives as complements too - jehir, 'king', among them, obtaining a situation where only the indefinite complement forms are distinct from the regular nominative for those nouns, but also where definite and specific nominative forms are used as complements.)

Accusative



SingularPluralPaucal
Indefinite-uc-iwuc-imin
Definite-itiś-iwiś-immaś
Specific-itaś-iwaś-immaś

Accusative Complement
The accusative complement does not distinguish definiteness, nor does it have any paucal forms.
The singular and plural forms are -itće, -wuće

The same situation that applies for nominative complements obtains here, but both definite and specific accusative and nominative forms are attested as object complements for those.

Reflexively Possessed Accusative
This distinguishes singular, plural and paucal, but not definiteness.
-sun, -iwun, -imun.

Genitive
Only has definite and specific forms, but distinguishes all three numbers:
Definite: -itite, -iute, -immate
Specific: -itaś, -iwate, -immate

Dative


SingularPluralPaucal
Indefinite-ene-iune-imene
Definite-eneś-iuneś-immene
Specific-enəś-iunaś-immene

General ablative
The general ablative distinguishes definiteness (but not specificness), and two numbers.

SingularPlural
Indefinite-er-ir
Definite-erəś-iraś






{towards, from, at}*{in, on, by} / {(towards, by)}
These do not distinguish definiteness, and paucal is not distinguished in the 'from' row.
The towards-cases are formed by combining the corresponding dative with -ka, -mu, -le (often realized -ek:a, -em:u, -el:e). The 'at'-cases are formed from the accusative by the same suffixes. The final set are obtained by affixing -ka or -mu to the general ablative.



Instrumental
The instrumental always is singular and does not distinguish specificness. Nouns that only have plural forms have an exceptional pseudo-plural instrumental.

Singular -ap
(Plural -iup)

Comitative-with
The plural and paucal are merged in both comitatives. Unlike other places, paucal-like forms are here used for plural referents. Two definitenesses are distinguished



SingularPluralPaucal
Indefinite-eki
-imeki
Definite-ekiś
-immeki





Comitative-to


SingularPluralPaucal
Indefinite-etu
-imuc
Definite-etuc
-immući





Negative
The negative makes no definiteness distinctions.
Unlike other forms where the paucal-plural distinction is missing, the paucal here merges with the singular instead.
Singular-paucal: -ista
Plural: -utus

Marginal Cases
A few forms appear only with very specific nouns, and although they are used in case-like ways, are not really as important as the previously mentioned ones. Among these are a number of lexically limited locative cases. Another set are combinations of definiteness and number and case that usually do not appear in the language - some may actually have such forms extant for a limited number of words.

Most marginal forms that are not of the "unusual combination" type do not distinguish definitenesses.

Test Sentences, 44

April 20th, 2014 by Sylvia Sotomayor

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. The squirrel’s nest was hidden by drooping boughs.

OK. No squirrels. We’ll use kyɨlan, which is a largish sort of insect that build nests, sometimes even in trees.

If I were to say that the kyɨlan‘s nest is hidden, I’d use a verb of stance. The addition of the by phrase makes the drooping boughs a cause. So I could say that the boughs “sent” the nest to hiding. Or I could stick with the verb of stance and say that the nest sat in hiding in the boughs. I think that “by” means I should use the equivalent of “sent”, which would involve tɨŋi.

The next question is whether to mark the source (the boughs) with tto. I state in my published grammar that the causative tto attaches itself only to motile sources. The branches aren’t actually motile, but leaving them sessile turns them into a point of origin or a purpose. So I think I will have to allow tto to attach to any source and turn it from a purpose to a cause.

66. nɨdi nubitto kyɨlan ha lomu tɨŋi lammo dɛstɛ.

nɨdi
branch.SSpl
nubi
hanging.SSpl
-tto
CAUS
kyɨlan
wasp.MTsg
ha
PS
lomu
nest.SSsg
tɨŋi
tɨŋi.IMP
lammo
hiding.SSsg
dɛstɛ
I’m told

In Kēlen:

66. ñi jalōmme jē jacīla jalāma tō janīri janūwi;

ñi
NI
jalōmme
nest
GEN
jacīla
wasp
jalāma
hidden
because
janīri
branches
janūwi
hanging

Questions?

Test Sentences, 43

April 19th, 2014 by Sylvia Sotomayor

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. An old man with a walking stick stood beside the fence.

Standing next to a location involves the verb dansɛdɛ.

65. kyume tɛta dappomonɛn dansɛttɛ askɨba da kɨdan.

kyume
man.MTsg
tɛta
old.MTsg
dappomo
walking stick
-nɛn
with
dan-
next to
sɛttɛ
sɛdɛ.PRF
askɨba
boundary
da
PS
kɨdan
stone

In Kēlen:

65. la macūma mahēna nīkan japōma jarāka sū jakāste nū;

la
LA
macūma
man
mahēna
old
nīkan
with
japōma
stick
jarāka
walking
at
jakāste
boundary
this-side

Questions?

wide is lebal

April 19th, 2014 by Mariska
lebal = wide (adjective) (some things Google found for "lebal": an uncommon term; Lebal Drocer (which is "record label" backward) Inc. is some sort of small radical media company; le Bal is a French Debutante Ball; an unusual last name; Lebal Trading Co. Ltd of Taiwan sells commercial labeling machines; a misspelling of label; similar Lebala is the name of places in the Congo)

Word derivation for "wide":
Basque = zabal, Finnish = leveä
Miresua = lebal

Another word for wide in Finnish is laaja.

The word wide occurs twice, and wider occurs once, in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. This quote is from chapter 7, A Mad Tea-Party.
"You should learn not to make personal remarks," Alice said with some severity; "it's very rude."

The Hatter opened his eyes very wide on hearing this....

Cover Art for Beneath the Mountain of Heavy Fear

April 18th, 2014 by Lorinda J Taylor
Progress Update!
Front cover
Click for larger view
Back Cover
Click for larger view

       I've finished the front and back cover for the fourth volume of The Labors of Ki'shto'ba Huge-Head, and here they are! 
       I've also finished the black-and-white map for the paper-back and I've posted it on the tab MAPS along with the maps for all the other volumes. 
       In case you haven't read v.3 yet, here is the descrip-tion of v.4 from the end matter of that book:
 
       As Ki’shto’ba Huge-Head and its Companions venture into the lands of the At’ein’zei (People of the Root), they encounter the Ninth Companion, an eccentric Alate named Bu’gan’zei who practices a strangely hypnotic type of word craft that is totally new to the questers.  He has visited the legendary Mountain of the Glorious Root seeking a deceased friend to whom he was exceptionally devoted, but he failed in his attempt to extract her from the World Beyond.  Bu’gan’zei agrees to guide Ki’shto’ba and its friends to the Mountain, where the Champion can seek resolution for its guilt and where the personal quest of Is’a’pai’a Gold-Seeker will finally begin.  
After several exciting adventures with the monsters and giants of the Mountain, as well as new prophetic pronouncements by the resident Seer, the Companions again head south.  Near the At’ein’zei fortress of Ra’ki’wiv’u they encounter the Tenth Companion, an Intercaste Warrior with a bizarre story all her own.  In order to win her friendship, Ki’shto’ba (with Za’dut’s unsolicited assistance) must prevail over her in the Warrior Games during Ra’ki’wiv’u’s annual festival.  At that same festival, Di’fa’kro’mi takes part in a Remembrancer’s competition.
       This light-hearted episode is a welcome relief after the stressful events under the Mountain and soon the Companions are ready to set out for Yo’sho’zei lands, where Is’a’pai’a can learn its true destiny and where the sea is no longer a distant dream.
 
You can check out all the books in the series at Amazon and at Smashwords.  The publication of v.4 is getting closer all the time!