Archive for the ‘grammar’ Category


Wednesday, August 31st, 2016
Há!!! Yesterday and the day before were days of intense mental activity because there is something that is taking my sleep away: the diminutive. In English, you just use "little" or "tiny" and that's it, but in Spanish the diminutive is very important in everyday conversation. It carries a lot of meaning, since it isn't the same "mami" than "mamita" or "mamacita", and neither is the same "tiíta" when you're talking about a beloved aunt than when you're talking about a not beloved one; in the latter case, you call "tiíta" to an evil snake. Fortunely, I already have it figured out, and now I have some days left to introduce you the diminutive in Al. For now, here is the 4th part of my table, the part of the words "daughter", "niece", "granddaughter" and "great niece". Enjoy it!!! Bá!!!
Ál /áil/, creator of conlang Al /ál/

mu /mú/ [the] dau mU /mús/ [the] daus
/múi/ [the] dauty /múis/ [the] dauties
/múu/ [the] niece /múus/ [the] nieces
/múe/ [the] daughter /múes/ [the] daughters
/múa/ [the] g'daughter /múas/ [the] g'daughters
/múo/ [the] great niece /múos/ [the] great nieces
mui /múyi/ my dau mUi /músi/ my daus
múi /múiyi/ my dauty mÚi /múisi/ my dauties
müi /múuyi/ my niece mÜi /múusi/ my nieces
mũi /múeyi/ my daughter mŨi /múesi/ my daughters
mûi /múayi/ my g'daughter mÛi /múasi/ my g'daughters
mùi /múoyi/ my great niece mÙi /múosi/ my great nieces
muu /múyu/ your(s)dau mUu /músu/ your(s)daus
múu /múiyu/ your(s)dauty mÚu /múisu/ your(s)dauties
müu /múuyu/ your(s)niece mÜu /múusu/ your(s)nieces
mũu /múeyu/ your(s)daughter mŨu /múesu/ your(s)daughters
mûu /múayu/ your(s)g'daughter mÛu /múasu/ your(s)g'daughters
mùu /múoyu/ your(s)great niece mÙu /múosu/ your(s)great nieces
mue /múye/ their(s)dau mUe /múse/ their(s)daus
múe /múiye/ their(s)dauty mÚe /múise/ their(s)dauties
müe /múuye/ their(s)niece mÜe /múuse/ their(s)nieces
mũe /múeye/ their(s)daughter mŨe /múese/ their(s)daughters
mûe /múaye/ their(s)g'daughter mÛe /múase/ their(s)g'daughters
mùe /múoye/ their(s)great niece mÙe /múose/ their(s)great nieces
mua /múya/ her dau mUa /músa/ her daus
múa /múiya/ her dauty mÚa /múisa/ her dauties
müa /múuya/ her niece mÜa /múusa/ her nieces
mũa /múeya/ her daughter mŨa /múesa/ her daughters
mûa /múaya/ her g'daughter mÛa /múasa/ her g'daughters
mùa /múoya/ her great niece mÙa /múosa/ her great nieces
muo /múyo/ his dau mUo /múso/ his daus
múo /múiyo/ his dauty mÚo /múiso/ his dauties
müo /múuyo/ his niece mÜo /múuso/ his nieces
mũo /múeyo/ his daughter mŨo /múeso/ his daughters
mûo /múayo/ his g'daughter mÛo /múaso/ his g'daughters
mùo /múoyo/ his great niece mÙo /múoso/ his great nieces
muI /múyis/ our dau mUI /músis/ our daus
múI /múiyis/ our dauty mÚI /múisis/ our dauties
müI /múuyis/ our niece mÜI /múusis/ our nieces
mũI /múeyis/ our daughter mŨI /múesis/ our daughters
mûI /múayis/ our g'daughter mÛI /múasis/ our g'daughters
mùI /múoyis/ our great niece mÙI /múosis/ our great nieces
muU /múyus/ your(p)dau mUU /músus/ your(p)daus
múU /múiyus/ your(p)dauty mÚU /múisus/ your(p)dauties
müU /múuyus/ your(p)niece mÜU /múusus/ your(p)nieces
mũU /múeyus/ your(p)daughter mŨU /múesus/ your(p)daughters
mûU /múayus/ your(p)g'daughter mÛU /múasus/ your(p)g'daughters
mùU /múoyus/ your(p)great niece mÙU /múosus/ your(p)great nieces
muE /múyes/ their(p)dau mUE /múses/ their(p)daus
múE /múiyes/ their(p)dauty mÚE /múises/ their(p)dauties
müE /múuyes/ their(p)niece mÜE /múuses/ their(p)nieces
mũE /múeyes/ their(p)daughter mŨE /múeses/ their(p)daughters
mûE /múayes/ their(p)g'daughter mÛE /múases/ their(p)g'daughters
mùE /múoyes/ their(p)great niece mÙE /múoses/ their(p)great nieces
muA /múyas/ their(f)dau mUA /músas/ their(f)daus
múA /múiyas/ their(f)dauty mÚA /múisas/ their(f)dauties
müA /múuyas/ their(f)niece mÜA /múusas/ their(f)nieces
mũA /múeyas/ their(f)daughter mŨA /múesas/ their(f)daughters
mûA /múayas/ their(f)g'daughter mÛA /múasas/ their(f)g'daughters
mùA /múoyas/ their(f)great niece mÙA /múosas/ their(f)great nieces
muO /múyos/ their(m)dau mUO /músos/ their(m)daus
múO /múiyos/ their(m)dauty mÚO /múisos/ their(m)dauties
müO /múuyos/ their(m)niece mÜO /múusos/ their(m)nieces
mũO /múeyos/ their(m)daughter mŨO /múesos/ their(m)daughters
mûO /múayos/ their(m)g'daughter mÛO /múasos/ their(m)g'daughters
mùO /múoyos/ their(m)great niece mÙO /múosos/ their(m)great nieces


Tuesday, August 30th, 2016
Há!!! Today we're gonna see a case where the language can come to help people. We're gonna see a way of calling a parent in a formal, familiar and very familiar situation, when it isn't a mother nor a father, be it a transgender, a partner of a biological parent, or a tutor. We know our natural languages are straight, in fact, they're homophobic. Thus, this is an advance in linguistics. And we know also that our natural languages were made for marriage. Thus, a tutor or a so called "partner" would never love somebody's children, unlike what happens today. One more time, language come to save the gap between adults and children. I hope (like Mr Esperanto) this language help people to be closer and closer over time. Enjoy it!!! Bá!!!
Ál /áil/, creator of the language Al /ál/

pa /pá/ [the] parent(fmr) pA /pás/ [the] parents(fmr)
/pái/ [the] parent(vfr) /páis/ [the] parents(vfr)
/páu/ [the] uncle(gen) /páus/ [the] uncles(gen)
/páe/ [the] parent(fml) /páes/ [the] parents(fml)
/páa/ [the] grandparent /páas/ [the] grandparents
/páo/ [the] great uncle /páos/ [the] great uncles
pai /páyi/ my parent(fmr) pAi /pási/ my parents(fmr)
pái /páiyi/ my parent(vfr) pÁi /páisi/ my parents(vfr)
päi /páuyi/ my uncle(gen) pÄi /páusi/ my uncles(gen)
pãi /páeyi/ my parent(fml) pÃi /páesi/ my parents(fml)
pâi /páayi/ my grandparent pÂi /páasi/ my grandparents
pài /páoyi/ my great uncle pÀi /páosi/ my great uncles
pau /páyu/ your(s)parent(fmr) pAu /pásu/ your(s)parents(fmr)
páu /páiyu/ your(s)parent(vfr) pÁu /páisu/ your(s)parents(vfr)
päu /páuyu/ your(s)uncle(gen) pÄu /páusu/ your(s)uncles(gen)
pãu /páeyu/ your(s)parent(fml) pÃu /páesu/ your(s)parents(fml)
pâu /páayu/ your(s)grandparent pÂu /páasu/ your(s)grandparents
pàu /páoyu/ your(s)great uncle pÀu /páosu/ your(s)great uncles
pae /páye/ their(s)parent(fmr) pAe /páse/ their(s)parents(fmr)
páe /páiye/ their(s)parent(vfr) pÁe /páise/ their(s)parents(vfr)
päe /páuye/ their(s)uncle(gen) pÄe /páuse/ their(s)uncles(gen)
pãe /páeye/ their(s)parent(fml) pÃe /páese/ their(s)parents(fml)
pâe /páaye/ their(s)grandparent pÂe /páase/ their(s)grandparents
pàe /páoye/ their(s)great uncle pÀe /páose/ their(s)great uncles
paa /páya/ her parent(fmr) pAa /pása/ her parents(fmr)
páa /páiya/ her parent(vfr) pÁa /páisa/ her parents(vfr)
päa /páuya/ her uncle(gen) pÄa /páusa/ her uncles(gen)
pãa /páeya/ her parent(fml) pÃa /páesa/ her parents(fml)
pâa /páaya/ her grandparent pÂa /páasa/ her grandparents
pàa /páoya/ her great uncle pÀa /páosa/ her great uncles
pao /páyo/ his parent(fmr) pAo /páso/ his parents(fmr)
páo /páiyo/ his parent(vfr) pÁo /páiso/ his parents(vfr)
päo /páuyo/ his uncle(gen) pÄo /páuso/ his uncles(gen)
pão /páeyo/ his parent(fml) pÃo /páeso/ his parents(fml)
pâo /páayo/ his grandparent pÂo /páaso/ his grandparents
pào /páoyo/ his great uncle pÀo /páoso/ his great uncles
paI /páyis/ our parent(fmr) pAI /pásis/ our parents(fmr)
páI /páiyis/ our parent(vfr) pÁI /páisis/ our parents(vfr)
päI /páuyis/ our uncle(gen) pÄI /páusis/ our uncles(gen)
pãI /páeyis/ our parent(fml) pÃI /páesis/ our parents(fml)
pâI /páayis/ our grandparent pÂI /páasis/ our grandparents
pàI /páoyis/ our great uncle pÀI /páosis/ our great uncles
paU /páyus/ your(p)parent(fmr) pAU /pásus/ your(p)parents(fmr)
páU /páiyus/ your(p)parent(vfr) pÁU /páisus/ your(p)parents(vfr)
päU /páuyus/ your(p)uncle(gen) pÄU /páusus/ your(p)uncles(gen)
pãU /páeyus/ your(p)parent(fml) pÃU /páesus/ your(p)parents(fml)
pâU /páayus/ your(p)grandparent pÂU /páasus/ your(p)grandparents
pàU /páoyus/ your(p)great uncle pÀU /páosus/ your(p)great uncles
paE /páyes/ their(p)parent(fmr) pAE /páses/ their(p)parents(fmr)
páE /páiyes/ their(p)parent(vfr) pÁE /páises/ their(p)parents(vfr)
päE /páuyes/ their(p)uncle(gen) pÄE /páuses/ their(p)uncles(gen)
pãE /páeyes/ their(p)parent(fml) pÃE /páeses/ their(p)parents(fml)
pâE /páayes/ their(p)grandparent pÂE /páases/ their(p)grandparents
pàE /páoyes/ their(p)great uncle pÀE /páoses/ their(p)great uncles
paA /páyas/ their(f)parent(fmr) pAA /pásas/ their(f)parents(fmr)
páA /páiyas/ their(f)parent(vfr) pÁA /páisas/ their(f)parents(vfr)
päA /páuyas/ their(f)uncle(gen) pÄA /páusas/ their(f)uncles(gen)
pãA /páeyas/ their(f)parent(fml) pÃA /páesas/ their(f)parents(fml)
pâA /páayas/ their(f)grandparent pÂA /páasas/ their(f)grandparents
pàA /páoyas/ their(f)great uncle pÀA /páosas/ their(f)great uncles
paO /páyos/ their(m)parent(fmr) pAO /pásos/ their(m)parents(fmr)
páO /páiyos/ their(m)parent(vfr) pÁO /páisos/ their(m)parents(vfr)
päO /páuyos/ their(m)uncle(gen) pÄO /páusos/ their(m)uncles(gen)
pãO /páeyos/ their(m)parent(fml) pÃO /páesos/ their(m)parents(fml)
pâO /páayos/ their(m)grandparent pÂO /páasos/ their(m)grandparents
pàO /páoyos/ their(m)great uncle pÀO /páosos/ their(m)great uncles


Monday, August 29th, 2016
Há!!! First subject. Relatives' words are important because you use them all the time, and because the Lord's Prayer begins with "Our Father", and thus this word is very important for any conlanger when comparing conlangs.

Second subject. I'd like to ask to the people of to put my previous post (the one for "mother"), along with this one and all about the same subject, in the category "Word of the Day", please. I'm gonna change the name of the post from "Third post (mother)" to "Word of the Day: Mother" as soon as I finish this one (PD: I later on changed it agait to "WOTD: Mother et al.").

Third subject. You'll have noticed that "our father" is dãI, pronounced /dáeyis/. So, now you have the first word of the Lord's Prayer in al. Enjoy the 2nd part of the table. Bá!!!
Ál /áil/, creator of the conlang Al /ál/

da /dá/ [the] dad/papa dA /dás/ [the] dads/papas
/dái/ [the] daddy /dáis/ [the] daddies
/dáu/ [the] uncle /dáus/ [the] uncles
/dáe/ [the] father /dáes/ [the] fathers
/dáa/ [the] grandpa /dáas/ [the] grandpas
/dáo/ [the] great uncle /dáos/ [the] great uncles
dai /dáyi/ my dad/papa dAi /dási/ my dads/papas
dái /dáiyi/ my daddy dÁi /dáisi/ my daddies
däi /dáuyi/ my uncle dÄi /dáusi/ my uncles
dãi /dáeyi/ my father dÃi /dáesi/ my fathers
dâi /dáayi/ my grandpa dÂi /dáasi/ my grandpas
dài /dáoyi/ my great uncle dÀi /dáosi/ my great uncles
dau /dáyu/ your(s)dad/papa dAu /dásu/ your(s)dads/papas
dáu /dáiyu/ your(s)daddy dÁu /dáisu/ your(s)daddies
däu /dáuyu/ your(s)uncle dÄu /dáusu/ your(s)uncles
dãu /dáeyu/ your(s)father dÃu /dáesu/ your(s)fathers
dâu /dáayu/ your(s)grandpa dÂu /dáasu/ your(s)grandpas
dàu /dáoyu/ your(s)great uncle dÀu /dáosu/ your(s)great uncles
dae /dáye/ their(s)dad/papa dAe /dáse/ their(s)dads/papas
dáe /dáiye/ their(s)daddy dÁe /dáise/ their(s)daddies
däe /dáuye/ their(s)uncle dÄe /dáuse/ their(s)uncles
dãe /dáeye/ their(s)father dÃe /dáese/ their(s)fathers
dâe /dáaye/ their(s)grandpa dÂe /dáase/ their(s)grandpas
dàe /dáoye/ their(s)great uncle dÀe /dáose/ their(s)great uncles
daa /dáya/ her dad/papa dAa /dása/ her dads/papas
dáa /dáiya/ her daddy dÁa /dáisa/ her daddies
däa /dáuya/ her uncle dÄa /dáusa/ her uncles
dãa /dáeya/ her father dÃa /dáesa/ her fathers
dâa /dáaya/ her grandpa dÂa /dáasa/ her grandpas
dàa /dáoya/ her great uncle dÀa /dáosa/ her great uncles
dao /dáyo/ his dad/papa dAo /dáso/ his dads/papas
dáo /dáiyo/ his daddy dÁo /dáiso/ his daddies
däo /dáuyo/ his uncle dÄo /dáuso/ his uncles
dão /dáeyo/ his father dÃo /dáeso/ his fathers
dâo /dáayo/ his grandpa dÂo /dáaso/ his grandpas
dào /dáoyo/ his great uncle dÀo /dáoso/ his great uncles
daI /dáyis/ our dad/papa dAI /dásis/ our dads/papas
dáI /dáiyis/ our daddy dÁI /dáisis/ our daddies
däI /dáuyis/ our uncle dÄI /dáusis/ our uncles
dãI /dáeyis/ our father dÃI /dáesis/ our fathers
dâI /dáayis/ our grandpa dÂI /dáasis/ our grandpas
dàI /dáoyis/ our great uncle dÀI /dáosis/ our great uncles
daU /dáyus/ your(p)dad/papa dAU /dásus/ your(p)dads/papas
dáU /dáiyus/ your(p)daddy dÁU /dáisus/ your(p)daddies
däU /dáuyus/ your(p)uncle dÄU /dáusus/ your(p)uncles
dãU /dáeyus/ your(p)father dÃU /dáesus/ your(p)fathers
dâU /dáayus/ your(p)grandpa dÂU /dáasus/ your(p)grandpas
dàU /dáoyus/ your(p)great uncle dÀU /dáosus/ your(p)great uncles
daE /dáyes/ their(p)dad/papa dAE /dáses/ their(p)dads/papas
dáE /dáiyes/ their(p)daddy dÁE /dáises/ their(p)daddies
däE /dáuyes/ their(p)uncle dÄE /dáuses/ their(p)uncles
dãE /dáeyes/ their(p)father dÃE /dáeses/ their(p)fathers
dâE /dáayes/ their(p)grandpa dÂE /dáases/ their(p)grandpas
dàE /dáoyes/ their(p)great uncle dÀE /dáoses/ their(p)great uncles
daA /dáyas/ their(f)dad/papa dAA /dásas/ their(f)dads/papas
dáA /dáiyas/ their(f)daddy dÁA /dáisas/ their(f)daddies
däA /dáuyas/ their(f)uncle dÄA /dáusas/ their(f)uncles
dãA /dáeyas/ their(f)father dÃA /dáesas/ their(f)fathers
dâA /dáayas/ their(f)grandpa dÂA /dáasas/ their(f)grandpas
dàA /dáoyas/ their(f)great uncle dÀA /dáosas/ their(f)great uncles
daO /dáyos/ their(m)dad/papa dAO /dásos/ their(m)dads/papas
dáO /dáiyos/ their(m)daddy dÁO /dáisos/ their(m)daddies
däO /dáuyos/ their(m)uncle dÄO /dáusos/ their(m)uncles
dãO /dáeyos/ their(m)father dÃO /dáesos/ their(m)fathers
dâO /dáayos/ their(m)grandpa dÂO /dáasos/ their(m)grandpas
dàO /dáoyos/ their(m)great uncle dÀO /dáosos/ their(m)great uncles


Sunday, August 28th, 2016
Há!!! Today I made a very wide spreadsheet (don't worry, I don't work this much every day, lol). It is so wide, that I'm gonna split it in 9: 1st mother et al., 2nd father et al., 3rd parent et al., 4th daughter et al., 5th son et al., 6th child et al., 7th sister et al., 8th brother et al., 9th sibling et al. This is the 1st part. Enjoy it!!! Bá!!!
Ál /áil/, creator of the conlang Al /ál/

ma /má/ [the] mom[ma] mA /más/ [the] mom[ma]s
/mái/ [the] mommy /máis/ [the] mommies
/máu/ [the] aunt /máus/ [the] aunts
/máe/ [the] mother /máes/ [the] mothers
/máa/ [the] grandma /máas/ [the] grandmas
/máo/ [the] great aunt /máos/ [the] great aunts
mai /máyi/ my mom[ma] mAi /mási/ my mom[ma]s
mái /máiyi/ my mommy mÁi /máisi/ my mommies
mäi /máuyi/ my aunt mÄi /máusi/ my aunts
mãi /máeyi/ my mother mÃi /máesi/ my mothers
mâi /máayi/ my grandma mÂi /máasi/ my grandmas
mài /máoyi/ my great aunt mÀi /máosi/ my great aunts
mau /máyu/ your(s)mom[ma] mAu /másu/ your(s)mom[ma]s
máu /máiyu/ your(s)mommy mÁu /máisu/ your(s)mommies
mäu /máuyu/ your(s)aunt mÄu /máusu/ your(s)aunts
mãu /máeyu/ your(s)mother mÃu /máesu/ your(s)mothers
mâu /máayu/ your(s)grandma mÂu /máasu/ your(s)grandmas
màu /máoyu/ your(s)great aunt mÀu /máosu/ your(s)great aunts
mae /máye/ their(s)mom[ma] mAe /máse/ their(s)mom[ma]s
máe /máiye/ their(s)mommy mÁe /máise/ their(s)mommies
mäe /máuye/ their(s)aunt mÄe /máuse/ their(s)aunts
mãe /máeye/ their(s)mother mÃe /máese/ their(s)mothers
mâe /máaye/ their(s)grandma mÂe /máase/ their(s)grandmas
màe /máoye/ their(s)great aunt mÀe /máose/ their(s)great aunts
maa /máya/ her mom[ma] mAa /mása/ her mom[ma]s
máa /máiya/ her mommy mÁa /máisa/ her mommies
mäa /máuya/ her aunt mÄa /máusa/ her aunts
mãa /máeya/ her mother mÃa /máesa/ her mothers
mâa /máaya/ her grandma mÂa /máasa/ her grandmas
màa /máoya/ her great aunt mÀa /máosa/ her great aunts
mao /máyo/ his mom[ma] mAo /máso/ his mom[ma]s
máo /máiyo/ his mommy mÁo /máiso/ his mommies
mäo /máuyo/ his aunt mÄo /máuso/ his aunts
mão /máeyo/ his mother mÃo /máeso/ his mothers
mâo /máayo/ his grandma mÂo /máaso/ his grandmas
mào /máoyo/ his great aunt mÀo /máoso/ his great aunts
maI /máyis/ our mom[ma] mAI /másis/ our mom[ma]s
máI /máiyis/ our mommy mÁI /máisis/ our mommies
mäI /máuyis/ our aunt mÄI /máusis/ our aunts
mãI /máeyis/ our mother mÃI /máesis/ our mothers
mâI /máayis/ our grandma mÂI /máasis/ our grandmas
màI /máoyis/ our great aunt mÀI /máosis/ our great aunts
maU /máyus/ your(p)mom[ma] mAU /másus/ your(p)mom[ma]s
máU /máiyus/ your(p)mommy mÁU /máisus/ your(p)mommies
mäU /máuyus/ your(p)aunt mÄU /máusus/ your(p)aunts
mãU /máeyus/ your(p)mother mÃU /máesus/ your(p)mothers
mâU /máayus/ your(p)grandma mÂU /máasus/ your(p)grandmas
màU /máoyus/ your(p)great aunt mÀU /máosus/ your(p)great aunts
maE /máyes/ their(p)mom[ma] mAE /máses/ their(p)mom[ma]s
máE /máiyes/ their(p)mommy mÁE /máises/ their(p)mommies
mäE /máuyes/ their(p)aunt mÄE /máuses/ their(p)aunts
mãE /máeyes/ their(p)mother mÃE /máeses/ their(p)mothers
mâE /máayes/ their(p)grandma mÂE /máases/ their(p)grandmas
màE /máoyes/ their(p)great aunt mÀE /máoses/ their(p)great aunts
maA /máyas/ their(f)mom[ma] mAA /másas/ their(f)mom[ma]s
máA /máiyas/ their(f)mommy mÁA /máisas/ their(f)mommies
mäA /máuyas/ their(f)aunt mÄA /máusas/ their(f)aunts
mãA /máeyas/ their(f)mother mÃA /máesas/ their(f)mothers
mâA /máayas/ their(f)grandma mÂA /máasas/ their(f)grandmas
màA /máoyas/ their(f)great aunt mÀA /máosas/ their(f)great aunts
maO /máyos/ their(m)mom[ma] mAO /másos/ their(m)mom[ma]s
máO /máiyos/ their(m)mommy mÁO /máisos/ their(m)mommies
mäO /máuyos/ their(m)aunt mÄO /máusos/ their(m)aunts
mãO /máeyos/ their(m)mother mÃO /máesos/ their(m)mothers
mâO /máayos/ their(m)grandma mÂO /máasos/ their(m)grandmas
màO /máoyos/ their(m)great aunt mÀO /máosos/ their(m)great aunts


Saturday, August 27th, 2016
Há!!! Thanks to the people of for aggregate me to your blog. It makes me very happy to be part of your community of conlangers. I want to repeat that I have a name, I have a nickname, and I have a pseudonym, but as a conlanger I'd like to be known as Ál, with accute accent, which is pronounced /áil/ in the language I created, Al, which is pronounced /ál/. I also want to repeat that I was born and raised in Mendoza, Argentina, and although I speak English fluently, I'm not an expert, so please forgive any mistake. Said that, let's continue with the language.

In the first post, I commented that I created several words out of English words containing a long I (I want my language to be a real and viable offspring of English, Al is a language of the future of Mankind): "L" from "life", "T" from "time", and so on. Well, now it would be the same, but what English speaking people know as "long I", in Al is "á", since the accute accent is an /i/ after the vowel over it is found. Thus, "my life" is "lá" /lái/, "my time" is "tá" /tái/, "hi" is "há" /hái/, "bye" is "bá" /bái/, and so on (because of that, I wrote "há" instead of "hi", and because of that too, from now on I'm gonna say hello with "há" and goodbye with "bá"). What I've made with the accute accent ( ´ ) is something that I did with all the other diacritics on Al: dieresis or umlaut ( ¨ ) is an /u/, circumflex ( ˆ ) is an /a/, grave accent ( ` ) is an /o/, and tilde ( ˜ ) is an /e/.

This is something that I think I must thank to be living in a non-English country, where my keyboard is plenty of diacritics, and also my cell phone. If you want to use all this diacritics, you have to set your keyboard to "Español (alfabetización internacional)". You will have Ñ to the right of L, then the accute and umlaut, and then Ç, and up, to the right of P, you will have the grave and circumflex. Tilde is Alt Gr 4 followed by A (Ãã) or O (Õõ). In the case of I, U and E, there are ways, but if you're not a geek, you may just use I'i', U'u' and E'e'.

Well, I think it's enough information for today. One more time, thanks to the people of for aggregate me to your blog. Bá!!!

Dairwueh: Person-Specific Quirky Case

Saturday, August 27th, 2016
Certain verbs in Dairwueh have no forms for some set of persons, generally one or both of first and second person. Most of these in fact only have third person singular forms. Whenever the subject is "missing" for a verb, it can be formed by having that person's pronoun as a quirky case subject.

The entries below are given as root (meaning) (persons missing) case.
mogar (rot) (I, II) acc
ebas (lose, misplace) (I) dat
konav  (bequeath to*) (I) acc
atisal (physically reach, have sufficient stature to reach something) (I, II) gen
embor (appear to be) (IIsg) loc-instr
adval (displease) (Isg, IIsg) acc
saŋəst (remain) (Isg) loc-instr
lohak (fear) (Isg, Ipl, IIpl) dat
All of these do permit having first and second person subjects. These, however, require oblique marking. The oblique marking will also extend to nouns coordinated or apposite to such a subject. Some examples:
it rots
I rot
Je, it, is third person, and therefore does not behave in any extraordinary way. Ver, I, however, cannot stand as a nominative subject of mogar, but mogar permits accusative subjects for first and second person, and therefore we get the accusative vena.

These kinds of subjects, unlike the nominative ones, require the 3sg II verb. As mentioned, coordination and apposition do also get affected:
I, the king, bequeath nothing
Normally, erha kona(v/š) would be permissible, but since it's in apposition with ver, which cannot stand in the nominative as subject of konav, it must agree in case therewith.
Contrast with the situation where only the third person subject is present:
with dis- similation of -rir
the king bequeathed (his) power to (his) daughter
Note that erha is in the genitive because it's a transitive verb with a definite subject - a slightly ergative pattern in Dairwueh. Contrast with the following, where both a first person and a third person NP is present - the first person pronoun that has to take accusative as subject of this verb also makes the other noun do so:
 I and the king appeared to be fighting/enemies
Contrast to the next clause, where both subjects are third person, and therefore do trigger person/number congruence, and do not have any curious case marking:



the king and the tribes appeared to be enemies
Since embor is intransitive, erha is in the nominative despite being definite.

* The noun to whom something is bequeathed is marked by the preposition gir, 'along, through'.

Detail #306: Pronoun as Comparison Strategy

Thursday, August 25th, 2016
This is, I think, a new comparison strategy. Consider a pronoun that indicates that a thing is being compared. I'll be using italicized comp as this pronoun:
Between John, between Eric, the company relies on comp_masc,sg.
 Between X between Y is considered to be similar to how Biblical Hebrew forms 'between', i.e. both nouns are preceded by the same preposition, possibly with an and, i.e. "between X and between Y".

If the compared things differ in gender, comp can by gender congruence relate to either of the nouns. For nouns of the same gender, the first noun is the more X:
between the brother and between the sister, their mother wants comp.fem.dat the painting as inheritance
the mother prefers that her daughter gets the painting as inheritance
between John and between Eric, comp.masc.nom is strong.
John is stronger than Eric

between Tor and between Sven, she likes comp.masc.acc
she likes Tor more than she likes Sven

between Schylla and between Charybdis, comp.fem.nom scares me
Schylla scares me more than Charybdis (does)

between John and between Tina, comp.fem.nom plays the guitar well
Tina plays the guitar better than John


Wednesday, August 24th, 2016
Hi! I have a name, I have a nickname, and I have a pseudonym, but as a conlanger I'd like to be known as Ál, with accute accent, which is pronounced /áil/ in the language I created, Al, which is pronounced /ál/. I was born and raised in Mendoza, Argentina, and although I speak English fluently, I'm not an expert, so please forgive any mistake. Said that, let's go to the language.

The name Al, along with the word "al", mean the same thing: "Our Language". As you'd have divine, the "A" is for "Our" and the "L" is for "Language". And my pseudonym, Ál, pronounced /áil/, along with the word "ál", with accute accent ( ´ ), mean both the same thing too: "One Who Speaks Our Language".

I started creating this language about ten years ago, as a hobby, when I didn't have any idea of how big the conlang movement was or will be. That's why I spended most of these years doing nothing but spinning around unsubstantious matters.

Until the arrival of Twitter. As a Spanish writing person, I'm familiar with the invariable frustration of been always short of space with nothing more than 140 characters. I felt happy every time I had to write a tweet in English, since I was plenty of space with that language. Then, one day, I decided to create a language even briever than English, and the name of such language was going to be "La", honoring the premise of brevity. Later on, I became a fan of the letter A, and thus the name of the language mutate onto "Al".

The meaning of the name "La" was simply "Language" or "A Language". But then one day I watch the movie Hero, and when the warrior writes two chinese characters (Tiānxià) meaning "Our Land", I fancy my language to be able to say "Our Language" in one only word of two characters too; hence, from that day on, the "L" became "Language" and the "A" became "Our". And when I became fan of the letter A, it was just a matter of switching places.

I spended another lot of years with pronouns and numbers, instead of enlarging my language's vocabulary. Once, about three or four years ago, I was able of creating a little vocabulary with words containing a long I: "L" /lái/ for "life", "T" /tái/ for "time", and so on. But that idea didn't flourish. I got stuck with the whim of making that a phrase like "I know you love me" was as brief as "Núm", pronounced /niúim/. In fact, I still want that to happen, but I find out how to get free of that quagmire.

I'm gonna finish this first post and I'm gonna send this blog's address to, as said. I really want to see this blog entry on because when I see that, I'll know other people will know about my language; otherwise, I fear nobody will ever notice about anything regarding my language.If they don't aggregate me soon, I'm gonna make another post with more data about my language, in the hope for them to aggregate me as soon as possible. Bye!!! Ál

Detail #305: Social-Status Demonstrative Quality Pronouns

Wednesday, August 24th, 2016
In languages with great amounts of social stratification, where this stratification has been grammaticalized, consider pronouns and determiners with meanings along the lines of
such a/such __s
a similar thing
the same
Now, consider having pronouns meaning things like
a person of
  • the same social status 
  • similar social status  
  • different social status
  • any social status
 So, now we have pronouns signifying:
  • statuswise, such a ...
  • statuswise, another kind of
  • statuswise, a similar kind of
  • statuswise, any kind of
This could be an interesting dimension for a language to seep into.

A Musical Notation

Tuesday, August 23rd, 2016
Consider a culture of polyphonic improvization where the conductor has a sign language, using the position of the left and right arm to communicate what two of the voices do (probably the middle ones), and the left and right hands to communicate what the top and bottom voices do. Reading the middle lines' meanings requires being able first to read the top and bottom line symbols, because the arm position basically communicated how the middle voices' movements relate to the top and bottom ones.

This system is later on turned into a notation system, whereby each symbol consists of partial symbols for arm position, arm movement, hand signs and so on, so you basically get a series of very stylized 'conductors', with each conductor representing a pulse of the rhythm. Omissions of partial symbols may either mean 'silence' or 'continue previous pitch', depending on stylistic conventions. Sometimes it is unclear which is meant.

Notation for dynamics are done by simply bolding or weakening the lines - this does not, though, communicate which particular voice(s) is (/ are) strengthened or weakened.

As in most conducted musics, the facial expressions and other aspects of body language are interpreted by singers as well, and may sometimes be expressed by stylized faces inserted before a symbol. There is a convention as to what direction the eyes of the stylized faces are directed to direct an instruction at some particular voice.