Archive for the ‘grammar’ Category

Lexember 30th: tëlpeka, “oven, furnace”

Sunday, December 30th, 2018

Today's word, tëlpeka /təl.ˈpe.ka/ oven, furnace, is related to the word tëlpo to cook.

Tëlpeka mai chan si salki re.
oven LAT dish ACC put.IMP PART
Put the dish into the oven.

Ën tëlpeka në asíkal si atenkëlat harno tul.
ën tëlpeka në asíkal si atenk-ël-at harn-o tul
this furnace TOP metal ACC melt-CAUS-INF be.able-PFV Q
Can this furnace melt metal?

There is a lot of interesting lexical typology, metaphor, and idiom around cooking, but I haven't yet concocted any connections from those to this word.

Lexember 29th: pepa, “omelette, frittata, kuku”

Saturday, December 29th, 2018

Today's word, pepa /ˈpe.pa/, refers to any savory dish that involves dumping a bunch of stuff into eggs and then either frying or baking it. So, omelette, frittata, the Persian kuku, etc.

Kispëtin pepa si tëlpi rum.
having.pistachios omelette ACC cook.IMP PART
Let's make a pistachio kuku.

Pistachio Kuku is an actual Persian dish.

Grammatical reminder: an imperative followed by rum is an optative, which is also used as a hortative.

Lexember 29th: pepa, “omelette, frittata, kuku”

Saturday, December 29th, 2018

Today's word, pepa /ˈpe.pa/, refers to any savory dish that involves dumping a bunch of stuff into eggs and then either frying or baking it. So, omelette, frittata, the Persian kuku, etc.

Kispëtin pepa si tëlpi rum.
having.pistachios omelette ACC cook.IMP PART
Let's make a pistachio kuku.

Pistachio Kuku is an actual Persian dish.

Grammatical reminder: an imperative followed by rum is an optative, which is also used as a hortative.

Lexember 28th: vísa, “goat”

Saturday, December 29th, 2018

Today's word is vísa goat.

Vísur në kovura si sanirë vukai!
goat.PL TOP everything ACC eat.IPFV PART
The goats are eating everything!

The final particle vukai marks a state of affairs the speaker is unhappy about.

You can use the term to refer to a person who is being inappropriately oversexual, somewhat answering to (American) English "dog," except it isn't exclusively male, and refers more to contextually inappropriate behavior than a deeper or permanent aspect of someone's personality.

Vísa, micha víni rum.
goat mind be.still.IMP PART
Calm down, dog.

The combination of the imperative with the final particle rum makes an optative. So, "let (your) mind be calm."

Lexember 28th: vísa, “goat”

Saturday, December 29th, 2018

Today's word is vísa goat.

Vísur në kovura si sanirë vukai!
goat.PL TOP everything ACC eat.IPFV PART
The goats are eating everything!

The final particle vukai marks a state of affairs the speaker is unhappy about.

You can use the term to refer to a person who is being inappropriately oversexual, somewhat answering to (American) English "dog," except it isn't exclusively male, and refers more to contextually inappropriate behavior than a deeper or permanent aspect of someone's personality.

Vísa, micha víni rum.
goat mind be.still.IMP PART
Calm down, dog.

The combination of the imperative with the final particle rum makes an optative. So, "let (your) mind be calm."

Lexember 27th: molánukivét, “creosote bush”

Thursday, December 27th, 2018

I'm back from the Sonoran desert, where the creosote bush is everywhere. So, today's word is molánukivét, creosote bush. It is formed from molán smoke, kiva tree, with the lexical diminutive ending -ét. There are other plants called "smoke tree" or "smoke bush" in English, but I'm using smoke in the word for creosote because from s distance a creosote bush has a somewhat hazy appearance, and from the aroma, which is distinctly smoky.

Ilivët molánukivét mitin annas si relo.
rain.CVB.PFV creosote.bush good aroma ACC carry.PFV
After it rains the creosote bush has a nice aroma.

Lexember 27th: molánukivét, “creosote bush”

Thursday, December 27th, 2018

I'm back from the Sonoran desert, where the creosote bush is everywhere. So, today's word is molánukivét, creosote bush. It is formed from molán smoke, kiva tree, with the lexical diminutive ending -ét. There are other plants called "smoke tree" or "smoke bush" in English, but I'm using smoke in the word for creosote because from s distance a creosote bush has a somewhat hazy appearance, and from the aroma, which is distinctly smoky.

Ilivët molánukivét mitin annas si relo.
rain.CVB.PFV creosote.bush good aroma ACC carry.PFV
After it rains the creosote bush has a nice aroma.

Lexember 26th: lanna, “dune”

Wednesday, December 26th, 2018

Another desert word, lanna /ˈlan.na/ dune.

Arha nen në rëtu lannur roko.
arha nen në rët-u lann-ur rok-o
erg LOC TOP many.PL dune.PL exist.PFV
There are many dunes in the erg.

How it is I have erg before dune is a bit of a mystery.

Lexember 26th: lanna, “dune”

Wednesday, December 26th, 2018

Another desert word, lanna /ˈlan.na/ dune.

Arha nen në rëtu lannur roko.
arha nen në rët-u lann-ur rok-o
erg LOC TOP many.PL dune.PL exist.PFV
There are many dunes in the erg.

How it is I have erg before dune is a bit of a mystery.

Lexember 25th: okkochál, “scorpion”

Tuesday, December 25th, 2018

Today's word, okkochál /ʔok.ˈko.t͡ʃaːl/ scorpion, is made up of kochál tail and a much reduced form of ochuko bend, fold.

Ëmpin okkochál në kor si mokat harno.
this.kind scorpion TOP person ACC kill.INF be.able.PFV
This kind of scorpion can kill a person.

The word can also be used for someone who is adept at especially vicious office politics.

Okkochál nen tiëtë tui mítëmai, núkkiëlësto so.
okkochál nen tiëtë tui mít-ëmai núkkiël-ëst-o so
scorpion LOC near thus say-PFV.COND.CVB be.in.trouble-INCH-PFV ASSEV
If you talk that way in front of a scorpion you'll get into trouble.