Archive for the ‘grammar’ Category

Kēpa Sōro

Monday, June 10th, 2019

So back in January, I shared this document with John Quijada. It contains the immediate precursor to Kenda Soro, called Kēpa Sōro. Some changes:

  • No more long vs short vowel distinction
  • Fewer particles, though the same motion particles
  • Changes in what gets marked

For the particles, I specifically got rid of several and renamed =ko to =nda. This was a big improvement, as I have a tendency to add a new particle anytime I have a new relationship to code.

Otherwise the motion particles and the nouns are more or less the same.

About the New Language

Friday, June 7th, 2019

Kēlen is the old language, of course, and it took 20+ years to develop into something more than a few names, words, and phrases.

The New Language started in December of 2012. Here is a timeline:

Sodna-leni (Dec 2012)
This started as an experiment with a small number of verbs encoding different types of motion. Posts tagged for this language.

Sodemadu (Dec 2015)
a better Sodna-leni. Website.

Tessese(ya) (Feb 2016 – Aug 2016)
Then I got fed up with the limitations of a small number of verbs, and created Tesseseya in order to relieve the stress and have some fun. Nuvutani is the first text for an early version of this language. Website.

Xunumi Wudu (Aug 2016-June 2017)
Back to a limited number of verbs (though about 3-4 times as many as Sodemadu) and a better understanding of what I am trying to do. Maybe. Website. Posts tagged for this language.

Xuunu Midu (July/Aug 2017)
an updated XW.

Ciye Sodo (Feb-July 2018)
a better XW.

Inavewa (July 2018)
scrap it all and play a bit

Precursor to KS (Aug 2018)

Kēpa Sōro (Nov 2018)
OK, a limited number of verbs AND the ability to translate into it without too much trouble. Also, allowed ‘r’ in the phonology.

Kenda Soro
a better Kēpa Sōro. See previous posts!

I’ll see over the weekend if I can find some material on the ones that are not on the web.

Dedaloza Tani 3

Wednesday, June 5th, 2019

Text and Translation

Kines yenda durondas uduriza ŋera neneno, namas eri neneŋiza bolono. Gareke lires naki, koros sovonda ŋono pezes sarananda andalona. Samas siŋi udures saloziza kuŋino, sovonda tononda runurunu sara. Lohoya mezi menepesena, pobolo tininisena. Uduridu koro vubire taka dimidimi haka, rusurusu haka, satana. Garas yedas satanda bereno.

Soronen andatepe sovoŋe, alas sovo sape, “Ikaro, zosos diŋi? Zosodo lirunuŋi?” Evi, “Ikaro,” alas sarunos tadano sonos zara tininino, saya sanda tudutos bavasavi. Saya ekeges koro satara, koronda kines berenoyi, Ikariya.

People on land see the pair flying through the air, and think they are spirits. They pass by the Gareke islands, and the boy feels more joy the more distance he is from the father. He desires to go higher in the air, and he forgets the father’s path. The sun begins to make the wax soft, and the feathers begin to come apart. The boy’s bare arms hit at the air repeatedly, and he begins to fall. The waters get a name from his falling into them.

The joyless father, now not a father, says,”Ikaro, where are you? Where do I look for you?” “Ikaro,” he said as he sees the feathers that are on top of the waves, and he curses his arts. He puts the boy’s body in the ground, and the land gets its name from the boy, Ikariya.

Interlinear and Explanation

Kines yenda durondas uduriza ŋera neneno, namas eri neneŋiza bolono.

kines
kini=s
land=LOC
yenda
yele-na
person-PL
durondas
duronda=s
eye.GP=LOC
uduriza
uduri=za
air=PATH
ŋera
ŋe=ra
SG.AN=GO
neneno
nene=no
pair=COME
namas
nama=s
3PL.AN=LOC
eri
eri
spirit
neneŋiza
nene=ŋi=za
pair=MOVE=PATH
bolono
bolo=no
belief=COME
People on land saw the pair flying through the air, and thought they were spirits.

Gareke lires naki, koros sovonda ŋono pezes sarananda andalona.

Gareke
Gareke
liri=s
island=LOC
na=ki
3PLan=BY
koro=s
boy=LOC
sovo=nda
father=SRC
ŋono
more
pezi=s
away=LOC
sa=ra=na=nda
3SG.RA=GO=START=SRC
anda=lo=na
joy=UP=START
They passed by the Gareke islands, and the boy felt more joy the more distance he was from the father.

Samas siŋi udures saloziza kuŋino, sovonda tononda runurunu sara.

samas
sama=s
3SG.RA=LOC
siŋi
siŋi
high
udures
uduri=s
air=LOC
saloziza
sa=lo=zi=za
3SG.RA=UP=FUT=PATH
kuŋino
kuŋi=no
desire=COME
sovonda
sovo=nda
father=SRC
tononda
tono=nda
path=SRC
runurunu
runurunu
forgetting
sara
sa=ra
3SG.RA=GO
He desired to go higher in the air, and he forgot the father’s path.

Lohoya mezi menepesena, pobolo tininisena.

lohoya
loho=ya
sun=CAUS
mezi
mezi
soft
menepesena
menepe=se=na
wax=STAY=START
pobolo
pobolo
apart
tininisena
tinini=se=na
feather=STAY=START
The sun began to make the wax soft, and the feathers began to come apart.

Uduridu koro vubire taka dimidimi haka, rusurusu haka, satana.

uduridu
uduri=du
air=GOAL
koro
koro
boy
vubire
vubire
bare
taka
taka
arm
dimidimi
dimidimi
with.force
haka
ha=ka
3SG.IN=TOUCH
rusurusu
rusurusu
repeatedly
haka
ha=ka
3SG.IN=TOUCH
satana
sa=ta=na
3SG.RA=DOWN=START
The boy’s bare arms hit at the air repeatedly, and he began to fall.

Apparently a noun can take multiple adjectives, but a verb/motion particle can only take one adverb. Hence the repetition of the verb phrase.

Garas yedas satanda bereno.

garas
gara=s
water=LOC
yedas
yeda=s
3PL.IN=LOC
satanda
sa=ta=nda
3SG.RA=DOWN=SRC
bereno
bere=no
name=COME
The waters got a name from his falling into them.

Soronen andatepe sovoŋe, alas sovo sape, “Ikaro, zosos diŋi? Zosodo lirunuŋi?”

soronen
soro=nen
word=COM
andatepe
andatepe
joy-less
sovoŋe
sovo=ŋi
father=MOVE
alas
ala=s
now=LOC
sovo
sovo
father
sape
sa=pe
3SG.RA=FAIL
Ikaro
Ikaro
Ikaro
zosos
zoso=s
where=LOC
diŋi
di=ŋi
2SG=MOVE
zosodo
zoso=du
where=GOAL
lirunuŋi
li=runu=ŋi
1SG=eye=MOVE
The joyless father, now not a father, said,””Ikaro, where are you? Where do I look for you?”

Evi, “Ikaro,” alas sarunos tadano sonos zara tininino, saya sanda tudutos bavasavi.

evi
e=vi
3PL.IN=OUT
Ikaro
Ikaro
Ikaro
alas
ala=s
now=LOC
sarunos
sa=runu=s
3SG.RA=eye=LOC
tadano
tadanu
waves
sonos
sono=s
head=LOC
zara
za=ra
3PL.IN=GO
tininino
tinini=no
feather=COME
saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
sanda
sa=nda
3SG.RA=SRC
tudutos
tudutu=s
learning=LOC
bavasavi
bavasa=vi
badness=OUT
“Ikaro,” he said as he saw the feathers that were on top of the waves, and he cursed his arts.

Curse is “cover with badness”.

Saya ekeges koro satara, koronda kines berenoyi, Ikariya.

saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
ekeges
ekegi=s
ground=LOC
koro
koro
boy
satara
sata=ra
body=GO
koronda
koro=nda
boy=SRC
kines
kini=s
land=LOC
berenoyi
bere=no=yi
name=COME=CONT
Ikariya
Ikariya
Ikariya
He put the boy’s body in the ground, and the land got its name from the boy, Ikariya.

Dedaloza Tani 2

Monday, June 3rd, 2019

Text and Translation

Seresere koro Ikaroŋi, sovoya zame kegevedu sarunuŋi. Sadu sakemekaza seŋipe, mezi esenadu menepes tinines sakemeka. Saya sovonda vubeŋe kegevedu yerenen pabasame. Sotos pesize tininiranda uraŋireŋes nene yalono zoŋi ŋandanen Dedaloŋi. Korodo rondonen sovoŋe, “Ikaro, aŋene tonoza direhe. Ebevedu direhe, yagaranen tumu tininisenahi. Lohodo direhe, tinines sanaluvinahi. Didu tatave, aŋene tonoza ira. Ebeve, loho, nene aŋeneza ira. Liŋakaza ino, aŋene tonoza ira.”

Saya atuvuza tutuve, koro ŋamas nene talile ŋandara aŋaka. Sovo ranarana kasaya koros pezise kanaka. Zaŋi tinininen udures sovolona. Tuvonda atuvuza tuturadu Dedaloŋi. Zoŋi ŋandanen uduriza sara, koronda ŋandas saruno iride hareye.

The boy Ikaro is standing, and watching his father’s work. The danger of touching fails to come to him, and his fingers touch the feathers and soften the wax. He impedes his father’s unusual work with play. After the final feather is placed, Dedalo has a pair of moving, spread-apart wings. The father gives the boy advice, “Ikaro, go via the middle path. If you go towards the sea, its water might make the feathers heavy. If you go towards the sun, its fire might cover the feathers. I command you, take the middle path. Sea, sun, go via the middle of the pair. Follow my back, take the middle path!”

He gives a lesson in flying and then puts a pair of new wings on the boy’s shoulders. The father, with shaking hands, gives the boy a final caress. With moving feathers, the father leaps into the air. Dedalo is like a bird giving a lesson in flying. With moving wings he goes through the air, his eyes looking back at the boy’s wings.

Interlinear and Explanation

Seresere koro Ikaroŋi, sovoya zame kegevedu sarunuŋi.

seresere
seresere
standing
koro
koro
boy
Ikaroŋi
Ikaro=ŋi
Ikaro=MOVE
sovoya
sovo=ya
father=CAUS
zame
za=me
PL.IN=INTO
kegevedu
kegeve=du
work=GOAL
sarunuŋi
sa=runu=ŋi
3SG.RA=eye=MOVE
The boy Ikaro was standing, and watching his father’s work.

Sadu sakemekaza seŋipe, mezi esenadu menepes tinines sakemeka.

sadu
sa=du
3SG.RA=GOAL
sakemekaza
sa=keme=ka=za
3SG.RA=finger=TOUCH=PATH
seŋipe
seŋi=pe
warning=FAIL
mezi
mezi
soft
esenadu
e=se=na=du
3PL.IN=STAY=START=GOAL
menepes
menepe=s
wax=LOC
tinines
tinini=s
feather=LOC
sakemeka
sa=keme=ka
3SG.RA=finger=TOUCH
The danger of touching failed to come to him, and his fingers touched the feathers and softened the wax.

Saya sovonda vubeŋe kegevedu yerenen pabasame.

saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
sovonda
sovo=nda
father=SRC
vubeŋe
vubeŋe
unusual
kegevedu
kegeve=du
work=GOAL
yerenen
yere=nen
game=COM
pabasame
pabasa=me
obstacle=INTO
He impeded his father’s unusual work with play.

Sotos pesize tininiranda uraŋireŋes nene yalono zoŋi ŋandanen Dedaloŋi.

sotos
soto=s
place=LOC
pesize
pesize
final
tininiranda
tinini=ra=nda
feather=GO=SRC
uraŋireŋes
uraŋiraŋi=s
middle.air=LOC
nene
nene
pair
yalono
yalono
spread
zoŋi
zo=ŋi
PL.IN=MOVE
ŋandanen
ŋanda=nen
wing=COM
Dedaloŋi
Dedalo=ŋi
Dedalo=MOVE
After the final feather was placed, Dedalo had a pair of moving, spread-apart wings.

Korodo rondonen sovoŋe, “Ikaro, aŋene tonoza direhe.

korodo
koro=du
boy=GOAL
rondonen
rondo=nen
advice=COM
sovoŋe
sovo=ŋi
father=MOVE
Ikaro
Ikaro
Ikaro
aŋene
aŋene
middle
tonoza
tono=za
path=PATH
direhe
di=ra=hi
2SG=GO=POT
The father gave the boy advice, “Ikaro, go via the middle path.

Ebevedu direhe, yagaranen tumu tininisenahi.

ebevedu
ebeve=du
sea=GOAL
direhe
di=ra=hi
2SG=GO=POT
yagaranen
ya=gara=nen
3PLan=water=COM
tumu
tumu
heavy
tininisenahi
tinini=se=na=hi
feather=STAY=START=POT
If you go towards the sea, its water might make the feathers heavy.

Lohodo direhe, tinines sanaluvinahi.

lohodo
loho=du
sun=GOAL
direhe
di=ra=hi
2SG=GO=POT
tinines
tinini=s
feather=LOC
sanaluvinahi
sa=nalu=vi=na=hi
3SG.RA=fire=OUT=START=POT
If you go towards the sun, its fire might cover the feathers.

Didu tatave, aŋene tonoza ira.

didu
di=du
2SG=GOAL
tatave
tata=vi
command=OUT
aŋene
aŋene
middle
tonoza
tono=za
path=PATH
ira
i=ra
3SG.AN=GO
I command you, take the middle path.

Ebeve, loho, nene aŋeneza ira.

ebeve
ebeve
sea
loho
loho
sun
nene
nene
pair
aŋeneza
aŋene=za
middle=PATH
ira
i=ra
3SG.AN=GO
Sea, sun, go via the middle of the pair.

Liŋakaza ino, aŋene tonoza ira.”

liŋakaza
li=ŋaka=za
1SG=back=PATH
ino
i=no
3SG.AN=COME
aŋene
aŋene
middle
tonoza
tono=za
path=PATH
ira
i=ra
3SG.AN=GO
Follow my back, take the middle path!”

Saya atuvuza tutuve, koro ŋamas nene talile ŋandara aŋaka.

saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
atuvuza
atuvu=za
flying=PATH
tutuve
tutu=vi
lesson=OUT
koro
koro
boy
ŋamas
ŋama=s
shoulder=LOC
nene
nene
pair
talile
talile
new
ŋandara
ŋanda=ra
wing=GO
aŋaka
aŋaka
and.then
He gave a lesson in flying and then put a pair of new wings on the boy’s shoulders.

Sovo ranarana kasaya koros pezise kanaka.

sovo
sovo
father
ranarana
ranarana
shaking
kasaya
kasa=ya
hand=CAUS
koros
koro=s
boy=LOC
pezise
pezise
final
kanaka
kana=ka
endearment=TOUCH
The father, with shaking hands, gave the boy a final caress.

Zaŋi tinininen udures sovolona.

zaŋi
za=ŋi
PL.IN=MOVE
tinininen
tinini=nen
feather=COM
udures
uduri=s
air=LOC
sovolona
sovo=lo=na
father=UP=START
With moving feathers, the father leapt into the air.

Tuvonda atuvuza tuturadu Dedaloŋi.

tuvonda
tuvu=nda
bird=SRC
atuvuza
atuvu=za
flying=PATH
tuturadu
tutu=ra=du
lesson=GO=GOAL
Dedaloŋi
Dedalo=ŋi
Dedalo=MOVE
Dedalo was like a bird giving a lesson in flying.

Zoŋi ŋandanen uduriza sara, koronda ŋandas saruno iride hareye.

zoŋi
zo=ŋi
SGin=MOVE
ŋandanen
ŋanda=nen
wing=COM
uduriza
uduri=za
air=PATH
sara
sa=ra
3SG.RA=GO
koronda
koro=nda
boy=SRC
ŋandas
ŋanda=s
wing=LOC
saruno
sa=runu
3SG.RA=eye
iride
iride
backwards
hareye
ha=ra=yi
3SG.IN=GO=CONT
With moving wings he went through the air, his eyes looking back at the boy’s wings.

Conlangery SHORTS 30: Revising a Grammar

Monday, June 3rd, 2019
George spends some time talking about his recent revisions of his Istatikii grammar, with a focus on organizing writing to serve the needs of the language and the readers. You will find the two drafts of the Istatikii consonant processes below. Script below the fold, see the history here. Welcome to Conlangery, the podcast about... Read more »

Le Lingue Artificiali de Il Trono di Spade: Analisi linguistica dell’Alto Valyriano e del Dothraki

Saturday, June 1st, 2019

Alida Castronovo was born on the 4th of April in 1992, in the city of Palermo, in Sicily. She attended the University of Palermo and obtained a Bachelor’s Degree in Languages and Modern Literature and Linguistic Mediation. She continued her studies at the same university and obtained a Master’s Degree in Western and Eastern Languages and Modern Literature.

Besides her passion for music and TV-series, her interests are to be found in linguistics’ field and in foreign languages. Her passion for languages has always accompanied her throughout her academic history, in which she studied several languages, such as English, German, Chinese and French.

Alida Castronovo è nata il 4 aprile 1992 a Palermo, in Sicilia. Ha frequentato l’Università degli Studi di Palermo, conseguendo una Laurea Triennale in Lingue e Letterature Moderne e Mediazione Linguistica. Ha continuato i suoi studi universitari presso l’Università di Palermo, conseguendo una Laurea Magistrale in Lingue e Letterature Moderne dell’Occidente e dell’Oriente.

Oltre ad essere una grande appassionata di musica e serie tv, i suoi interessi spaziano anche nel campo della linguistica e delle lingue straniere. La sua passione per le lingue l’ha accompagnata durante tutto il suo percorso accademico all’interno del quale ha studiato diverse lingue, quali l’inglese, il tedesco, il cinese e il francese.

Abstract

Nowadays, constructed languages are catching linguistic research’s attention more and more. But, such a complex field does not enjoy the prestige it deserves yet. The purpose of this thesis is that of demolishing, through knowledge, scepticism’s barriers that have always accompanied this form of art, by highlighting the way the TV-show Game of Thrones’ constructed languages (Dothraki and High Valyrian) are destroying the prejudice, little by little.

In Chapter I, basic concept concerning conlangs will be presented by investigating their origins, their propulsive thrusts and by providing noteworthy examples, such as Volapük or Esperanto.

Chapter II provides the analysis of the most famous examples of constructed languages created for literature and cinematography, such as Tolkien’s elvish language (Quenya), Paul Frommer’s Na’vi and Mark Okrand’s Klingon.

Chapter III offers an in-depth analysis on Game of Thrones’ constructed languages, Dothraki and High Valyrian, created by David J. Peterson. In this chapter, every linguistic aspect of these languages will be analysed, with detailed tables and explanatory examples.

Finally, in Chapter IV, we provide an analysis of Game of Thrones’ languages, whose aim is that of evaluating their linguistic adequacy from a typological point of view. In doing so, we refer to Greenberg’s typological classification of languages. Therefore, Dothraki and High Valyrian will be analysed and filtered through Greenberg’s Implicational Universals of Languages. (Italian Text)

Le lingue artificiali stanno acquisendo sempre più valore, attirando sempre più le attenzioni della ricerca linguistica. Un settore così complesso e articolato non gode ancora però del prestigio con cui lo si dovrebbe guardare. Obiettivo di questa trattazione è quello di abbattere, attraverso la conoscenza, le barriere dello scetticismo che da sempre accompagna questa vera e propria arte, mettendo in luce il processo di annientamento del pregiudizio che scompare anche grazie al successo delle lingue artificiali create per la serie tvGame of Thrones.

Nel Capitolo I verranno affrontati i concetti di base riguardanti il mondo delle lingue artificiali, indagandone origini, motivazioni e presentando alcuni tra gli esempi più noti, come il volapük o l’esperanto.

Nel Capitolo II verranno presentati i grandi esempi di lingue artificiali create per la letteratura o per la cinematografia, come la lingua elfica di Tolkien, il na’vi di Paul Frommer e il klingon di Mark Okrand.

Il Capitolo III scenderà più a fondo nell’analisi delle lingue artificiali create da David J. Peterson per la serie tv Game of Thrones, l’alto valyriano e il dothraki. In questo capitolo verranno analizzati tutti gli aspetti linguistici noti, correlati di tabelle esplicative ed esempi chiarificatori.

Infine, nel Capitolo IV viene proposta un’analisi delle lingue di Game of Thrones volta a valutarne l’adeguatezza linguistica da un punto di vista tipologico, facendo riferimento alla classificazione tipologica delle lingue che vede come suo principale teorico Joseph Greenberg. Le lingue in questione verranno, dunque, analizzate attraverso il filtro delle implicazioni postulate negli universali linguistici greenberghiani.

Version History

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

Dedaloza Tani 1

Friday, May 31st, 2019

This is the story of Daedalus and Icarus, as told by Ovid and retold by my Latin I textbook, with further revisions to fit the language. There will be three parts in total. Published today, Monday, and Wednesday.

Text and Translation

Ŋono tili lonos goligoleza liri Keretas maranda ŋono pezes ŋera Dedaloŋi. Samas molonda sanovas zase lakodo yimimino. Lirenda sarazidu goleza samas etede kuŋino, poboho ebeveŋi baŋibaŋi. Evi, “Kineza tadanuza Keretas lasa Minoka tezes, korikori layise gutus. Layeza lireze. Teneteneza Minoka tezes, uduriza saki gutus.”

Vutondo tudutos Dedaloki, saya maramaravanda talilivame. Saya ŋamaŋamas iŋenda siŋes ŋiri tininira. Panaya iŋisiŋi sizininda zome zimivivodo hase. Saya aŋene davas tava davas menepevi, zara tinines tesi bevelime. Dires tondo tuvonda zose nene ŋandaza bolonohi.

For a long time Dedalo, who was very far from home, had been on the island of Kereta. He felt a yearning for the huts where he was born. Over time he became filled with the desire to leave the island, but the seas were blocked. He said, “On the left hand, the land and the waves are held by Mino chief of Kereta, on the right, the sky is open. I will go by sky. On the left hand, Mino holds everything, on the right, he does not hold the air.”

Dedalo passes by unknown arts, he makes a new thing from life. He places feathers shoulder to shoulder from small to tall. It is like the pipes Pana made from different-sized reeds. He covered the middle and low parts with wax, he made a slight curve in the placed feathers. You could believe these were two wings from an actual bird.

Interlinear and Explanation

Ŋono tili lonos goligoleza liri Keretas maranda ŋono pezes ŋera Dedaloŋi.

ŋono
ŋono
many
tili
tili
past
lonos
lono=s
day=LOC
goligoleza
goligoli=za
long.long.time=PATH
liri
liri
island
Keretas
Kereta=s
Kereta=LOC
maranda
mara=nda
home=SRC
ŋono
ŋono
many
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
ŋera
ŋe=ra
SG.AN=GO
Dedaloŋi
Dedalo=ŋi
Dedalo=MOVE
For a long time Dedalo, who was very far from home, had been on the island of Kereta.

Samas molonda sanovas zase lakodo yimimino.

samas
sama=s
3SG.RA=LOC
molonda
molo=nda
womb=SRC
sanovas
sa=no=va=s
3SG.RA=COME=NOM=LOC
zase
zo=se
PL.IN=STAY
lakodo
laka=du
hut=GOAL
yimimino
yimimi=no
yearning=COME
He felt a yearning for the huts where he was born.

Lirenda sarazidu goleza samas etede kuŋino, poboho ebeveŋi baŋibaŋi.

lirenda
liri=nda
island=SRC
sarazidu
sa=ra=zi=du
3SG.RA=GO=FUT=GOAL
goleza
goli=za
long.time=PATH
samas
sama=s
3SG.RA=LOC
etede
etede
full
kuŋino
kuŋi=no
desire=COME
poboho
poboho
blocked
ebeveŋi
ebeve=ŋi
sea=MOVE
baŋibaŋi
baŋibaŋi
unexpected
Over time he became filled with the desire to leave the island, but the seas were blocked.

Evi, “Kineza tadanuza Keretas lasa Minoka tezes, korikori layise gutus.

evi
e=vi
3PL.IN=OUT
kineza
kini=za
land=PATH
tadanuza
tadanu=za
waves=PATH
Keretas
Kereta=s
Kereta=LOC
lasa
lasa
chief
Minoka
Mino=ka
Mino=TOUCH
tezes
tezes
left
korikori
korikori
open
layise
layi=se
sky=STAY
gutus
gutus
right
He said, “On the left hand, the land and the waves are held by Mino chief of Kereta, on the right, the sky is open.

The coordinating conjunction tezes … gutus is related to the words for left hand and right hand in Kēlen plus the locative =s.

Layeza lireze.

layeza
layi=za
sky=PATH
lireze
li=ra=zi
1SG=GO=FUT
I will go by sky.

Teneteneza Minoka tezes, uduriza saki gutus.”

teneteneza
tenetene=za
everything=PATH
Minoka
Mino=ka
Mino=TOUCH
tezes
tezes
left
uduriza
uduri=za
air=PATH
saki
sa=ki
3SG.RA=BY
gutus
gutus
right
On the left hand, Mino holds everything, on the right, he does not hold the air.”

Vutondo tudutos Dedaloki, saya maramaravanda talilivamena.

vutondo
vutondo
unknown
tudutos
tudutu=s
learning=LOC
Dedaloki
Dedalo=ki
Dedalo=BY
saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
maramaravanda
maramarava=nda
life=SRC
talilivamena
taliliva=me=na
newness=INTO=START
Dedalo passed by unknown arts, he started to make a new thing from life.

Saya ŋamaŋamas iŋenda siŋes ŋiri tininira.

saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
ŋamaŋamas
ŋamaŋama=s
shoulder.to.shoulder=LOC
iŋenda
iŋi=nda
small=SRC
siŋes
siŋi=s
tall=LOC
ŋiri
ŋiri
some
tininira
tinini=ra
feather=GO
He placed feathers shoulder to shoulder from small to tall.

Panaya iŋisiŋi sizininda zome zimivivodo hase.

Panaya
Pana=ya
Pana=CAUS
iŋisiŋi
iŋisiŋi
different.sized
sizininda
sizini=nda
reed=SRC
zome
zo=me
SG.IN=INTO
zimivivodo
zimiviva=du
pipes=GOAL
hase
ha=se
3SG.IN=STAY
It was like the pipes Pana made from different-sized reeds.

Saya aŋene davas tava davas menepevi, zara tinines tesi bevelime.

saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
aŋene
aŋene
middle
davas
dava=s
part=LOC
tava
tava
low
davas
dava=s
part=LOC
menepevi
menepe=vi
wax=OUT
zara
za=ra
PL.IN=GO
tinines
tinini=s
feather=LOC
tesi
tesi
few
bevelime
beveli=me
curve=INTO
He covered the middle and low parts with wax, he made a slight curve in the placed feathers.

Dires tondo tuvonda zose nene ŋandaza bolonohi.

dires
diri=s
2SG=LOC
tondo
tondo
actual
tuvonda
tuvu=nda
bird=SRC
zose
zo=se
SG.IN=STAY
nene
nene
pair
ŋandaza
ŋanda=za
wing=PATH
bolonohi
bolo=no=hi
belief=COME=POT
You could believe these were two wings from an actual bird.

Detail #380: A New Spot For Alignment

Thursday, May 30th, 2019
I recently came across this, a post whose content I am not really going to comment (due to the feeling that I don't know enough about this particular topic.) However, it sparked an idea in my mind:

Why not make an alignment-like system with regards to symmetrical vs. reciprocal actions? Some verbs could imaginably only take one or the other type, and here we could get an interesting set of situations:
  • verbs that are exclusively symmetrical
  • verbs that are exclusively reciprocal
  • verbs that can be either one or the other
Let's use s and r for arguments of exclusively s/r verbs, and S and R for verbs that can take one or the other. The way any particular marking works may differ from the way others are marked: reciprocal pronouns with differential object marking distinguishing different meanings, verbal affixes, particles, auxiliaries, adverbs, etc.
Potential solutions:

Trivial bipartite:
s = S
r = R

Asymmetrical bipartite:
s = S = r
R

or

S
s = R = r

Unhelpful bipartite (unlikely)
s = r
S = R

Tripartite I
s = r
S
R

Tripartite II
s = S
r
R

or

r = R
s
S

Diagonal Tripartite (unlikely)
s = R
r
S

or

S = r
R
s

Unhelpful Tripartite (unlikely)
s
r
S = R

Quadripartite (unlikely)
s S
r R
One thing that feels realistic, though, is that for some verbs, you may also have occasional exceptions like so:
Exceptional Marking I
S' = R
R' = other way that coincides with some other thing in the language?
The ' there marks that these are exceptionally marked ones, and that the "R" on the right hand of the equals mark stands for the marking, not the meaning.

Detail #380: A New Spot For Alignment

Thursday, May 30th, 2019
I recently came across this, a post whose content I am not really going to comment (due to the feeling that I don't know enough about this particular topic.) However, it sparked an idea in my mind:

Why not make an alignment-like system with regards to symmetrical vs. reciprocal actions? Some verbs could imaginably only take one or the other type, and here we could get an interesting set of situations:
  • verbs that are exclusively symmetrical
  • verbs that are exclusively reciprocal
  • verbs that can be either one or the other
Let's use s and r for arguments of exclusively s/r verbs, and S and R for verbs that can take one or the other. The way any particular marking works may differ from the way others are marked: reciprocal pronouns with differential object marking distinguishing different meanings, verbal affixes, particles, auxiliaries, adverbs, etc.
Potential solutions:

Trivial bipartite:
s = S
r = R

Asymmetrical bipartite:
s = S = r
R

or

S
s = R = r

Unhelpful bipartite (unlikely)
s = r
S = R

Tripartite I
s = r
S
R

Tripartite II
s = S
r
R

or

r = R
s
S

Diagonal Tripartite (unlikely)
s = R
r
S

or

S = r
R
s

Unhelpful Tripartite (unlikely)
s
r
S = R

Quadripartite (unlikely)
s S
r R
One thing that feels realistic, though, is that for some verbs, you may also have occasional exceptions like so:
Exceptional Marking I
S' = R
R' = other way that coincides with some other thing in the language?
The ' there marks that these are exceptionally marked ones, and that the "R" on the right hand of the equals mark stands for the marking, not the meaning.

Nuvuza Tani 3

Monday, May 27th, 2019

Text and Translation

Yozonda siŋi yaha medes luŋera. Mede yaha satas ŋelona luŋido zenizeni kumu runuŋe. Luŋeya peretenen mede kigivinda ono davara. Sasataza hara. Saya zimivina, zimenda kerekeremena.

Urinona, inda ŋono zeye oloŋira, lamana tene layisena. Tesi tarataratana, laka kahes Nuvora. Tana reŋirana, keses igaravena. Lakaza tana reŋirayi, inda pezes ŋono pobomo ŋono pidi ŋono perete ŋono muru era. Tana reŋirayi, inda pezes lakara. Medenda medes tanatana Nuvora, ŋiri mede yaha satas oloyo sape. Tana reŋirayi, inda pezes Nuvu ira. Pezes yalata zara Nuvu sazarudu luŋi sareŋe.

Nuvonda nuvume, inda nuvunuvu saruviyi.

The star goes from there to a tall smooth tree. The man expectantly watches the star climb the smooth trunk. The star takes a large piece of bark with a knife. It goes around their body. They start to sing, and from the song they start to make magic.

The wind starts to blow, it makes many dark clouds come, and the whole sky starts to be hidden. A little bit of rain starts to fall and Nuvu goes into the hut. The river starts to flow and it covers the campsite with water. The river flows around the hut and it washes away the many spears, the many baskets, the many knives, and the many mats. The river continues to flow and washes away the hut. Nuvu quickly goes from tree to tree, and he fails to climb the trees’ smooth trunks. The river continues to flow and washes away Nuvu. The star listens to Nuvu’s voice, which is dying away.

Nuvu is changed into an owl and he continues to cry mournfully.

Interlinear and Explanation

Yozonda siŋi yaha medes luŋera.

yozonda
yozo=nda
there=SRC
siŋi
siŋi
tall
yaha
yaha
smooth
medes
mede=s
tree=LOC
luŋera
luŋi=ra
star=GO
The star goes from there to a tall smooth tree.

Mede yaha satas ŋelona luŋido zenizeni kumu runuŋe.

mede
mede
tree
yaha
yaha
smooth
satas
sata=s
body=LOC
ŋelona
ŋe=lo=na
SG.AN=UP=START
luŋido
luŋi=du
star=GOAL
zenizeni
zenizeni
expectant
kumu
kumu
man
runuŋe
runu=ŋi
eye=MOVE
The man expectantly watches the star climb the smooth trunk.

Luŋeya peretenen mede kigivinda ono davara.

luŋeya
luŋi=ya
star=CAUS
peretenen
perete=nen
knife=COM
mede
mede
tree
kigivinda
kigivi=nda
skin=SRC
ono
ono
big
davara
dava=ra
piece=GO
The star takes a large piece of bark with a knife.

Sasataza hara.

sasataza
sa=sata=za
3SG.RA=body=PATH
hara
ha=ra
3SGin=GO
It goes around their body.

Saya zimivina, zimenda kerekeremena.

saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
zimivina
zimi=vi=na
music=OUT=START
zimenda
zimi=nda
music=SRC
kerekeremena
kerekere=me=na
magic=INTO=START
They start to sing, and from the song they start to make magic.

Urinona, inda ŋono zeye oloŋira, lamana tene layisena.

urinona
uri=no=na
wind=COME=START
inda
i=nda
3SG.AN=SRC
ŋono
ŋono
many
zeye
zeye
dark
oloŋira
oloŋi=ra
cloud=GO
lamana
lamana
hidden
tene
tene
all
layisena
layi=se=na
sky=STAY=START
The wind starts to blow, it makes many dark clouds come, and the whole sky starts to be hidden.

Tesi tarataratana, laka kahes Nuvora.

tesi
tesi
few
tarataratana
taratara=ta=na
rain=DOWN=START
laka
laka
hut
kahes
kahi=s
belly=LOC
Nuvora
Nuvo=ra
Nuvu=GO
A little bit of rain starts to fall and Nuvu goes into the hut.

Tana reŋirana, keses igaravena.

tana
tana
flowing
reŋirana
reŋi=ra=na
river=GO=START
keses
kese=s
camp=LOC
igaravena
i=gara=vi=na
3SG.AN=water=OUT=START
The river starts to flow and it covers the campsite with water.

Water gara is (here) a part of the river, and so possessed.

Lakaza tana reŋirayi, inda pezes ŋono pobomo ŋono pidi ŋono perete ŋono muru era.

lakaza
laka=za
hut=PATH
tana
tana
flowing
reŋirayi
reŋi=ra=yi
river=GO=CONT
inda
i=nda
3SG.AN=SRC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
ŋono
ŋono
many
pobomo
pobomo
spear
ŋono
ŋono
many
pidi
pidi
basket
ŋono
ŋono
many
perete
perete
knife
ŋono
ŋono
many
muru
muru
mat
era
e=ra
3PL.IN=GO
The river flows around the hut and it washes away the many spears, the many baskets, the many knives, and the many mats.

Tana reŋirayi, inda pezes lakara.

tana
tana
flowing
reŋirayi
reŋi=ra=yi
river=GO=CONT
inda
i=nda
3SG.AN=SRC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
lakara
laka=ra
hut=GO
The river continues to flow and washes away the hut.

Medenda medes tanatana Nuvora, ŋiri mede yaha satas oloyo sape.

medenda
mede=nda
tree=SRC
medes
mede=s
tree=LOC
tanatana
tanatana
quick
Nuvora
Nuvu=ra
Nuvu=GO
ŋiri
ŋiri
some
mede
mede
tree
yaha
yaha
smooth
satas
sata=s
body=LOC
oloyo
oloyo
upwards
sape
sa=pe
3SG.RA=FAIL
Nuvu quickly goes from tree to tree, and he fails to climb the trees’ smooth trunks.

Tana reŋirayi, inda pezes Nuvu ira.

tana
tana
flowing
reŋirayi
reŋi=ra=yi
river=GO=CONT
inda
i=nda
3SG.AN=SRC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
Nuvu
Nuvu
Nuvu
ira
i=ra
3SG.AN=GO
The river continues to flow and washes away Nuvu.

Pezes yalata zara Nuvu sazarudu luŋi sareŋe.

pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
yalata
yalata
dying
zara
za=ra
PL.IN=GO
Nuvu
Nuvu
Nuvu
sazarudu
sazaru=du
voice=GOAL
luŋi
luŋi
star
sareŋe
sara=ŋi
ear=MOVE=CONT
The star listens to Nuvu’s voice, which is dying away.

Nuvonda nuvume, inda nuvunuvu saruviyi.

Nuvonda
Nuvu=nda
Nuvu=SRC
nuvume
nuvu=me
owl=INTO
inda
i=nda
3SG.AN=SRC
nuvunuvu
nuvunuvu
mournful
saruviyi
saru=vi=yi
noise=OUT=CONT
Nuvu is changed into an owl and he continues to cry mournfully.