Archive for the ‘language lessons’ Category

Thropoi Phonology

Thursday, December 23rd, 2010
The phonology of Thropoi is pretty standard, with one or two exceptions.

Consonants


p b t d th k
p b t d θ~ð k

f v w s z sh zh
f v w~ʋ s z ʃ ʒ

m n l r j
m n* l r** j

* <n> is /ŋ/ before k
** <r> is /ɹ/ when not followed by a vowel

Vowels


a á o ó i í
ɐ a ɔ o ɪ i

u ú ü e é ë
u y ʏ ɛ e *

The last vowel is the most interesting. It is generally not pronounced. You could consider it a mix between a glottal stop and a /ə/. For instance, "darëthi" ('my') is pronounced [dɐɹθɪ], [dɐɹəθɪ] or [dɐrəθɪ]. The combination "të ... të" would be [tə ... tə] in most cases.

When a vowel is followed or preceded by an ë, the ë is omitted. E.g. 'mano'+'ëth' > "manoth" ('I have'). When there is a word break in between, the ë remains visually, but is not pronounced. For instance, "atë átallëth" ('and I eat') would be [ɐ:ta:tɐlθ].

Alternatively, you could write the <ë> as <'>. For instance "at' átallëth" or even "at' átall'th".

Thropoi Phonology

Thursday, December 23rd, 2010
The phonology of Thropoi is pretty standard, with one or two exceptions.

Consonants


p b t d th k
p b t d θ~ð k

f v w s z sh zh
f v w~ʋ s z ʃ ʒ

m n l r j
m n* l r** j

* <n> is /ŋ/ before k
** <r> is /ɹ/ when not followed by a vowel

Vowels


a á o ó i í
ɐ a ɔ o ɪ i

u ú ü e é ë
u y ʏ ɛ e *

The last vowel is the most interesting. It is generally not pronounced. You could consider it a mix between a glottal stop and a /ə/. For instance, "darëthi" ('my') is pronounced [dɐɹθɪ], [dɐɹəθɪ] or [dɐrəθɪ]. The combination "të ... të" would be [tə ... tə] in most cases.

When a vowel is followed or preceded by an ë, the ë is omitted. E.g. 'mano'+'ëth' > "manoth" ('I have'). When there is a word break in between, the ë remains visually, but is not pronounced. For instance, "atë átallëth" ('and I eat') would be [ɐ:ta:tɐlθ].

Alternatively, you could write the <ë> as <'>. For instance "at' átallëth" or even "at' átall'th".

Thropoi Phonology

Thursday, December 23rd, 2010
The phonology of Thropoi is pretty standard, with one or two exceptions.

Consonants


p b t d th k
p b t d θ~ð k

f v w s z sh zh
f v w~ʋ s z ʃ ʒ

m n l r j
m n* l r** j

* <n> is /ŋ/ before k
** <r> is /ɹ/ when not followed by a vowel

Vowels


a á o ó i í
ɐ a ɔ o ɪ i

u ú ü e é ë
u y ʏ ɛ e *

The last vowel is the most interesting. It is generally not pronounced. You could consider it a mix between a glottal stop and a /ə/. For instance, "darëthi" ('my') is pronounced [dɐɹθɪ], [dɐɹəθɪ] or [dɐrəθɪ]. The combination "të ... të" would be [tə ... tə] in most cases.

When a vowel is followed or preceded by an ë, the ë is omitted. E.g. 'mano'+'ëth' > "manoth" ('I have'). When there is a word break in between, the ë remains visually, but is not pronounced. For instance, "atë átallëth" ('and I eat') would be [ɐ:ta:tɐlθ].

Alternatively, you could write the <ë> as <'>. For instance "at' átallëth" or even "at' átall'th".

Thropoi

Wednesday, December 22nd, 2010
Thropoi is the (temporary?) name for my new 'artlang' (artistic language). It is derived from the first word that sprang to mind when coming up with this lang, which was "thropos". It means 'bull', though I'm not quite sure what effects that has on the meaning of 'Thropoi'.

Anyhow, let's look at a couple of sentences I assembled:
Anthonos sín darëthi prádo. Tas mano vesem mannin akot shánide. Tasta të tamen të rapu etet nají Frankarërne, jatem ain rutarevt.
It's supposed to mean the following:
Anthony is my friend. He has a great house near the sea. His mother and father went to France, but have not returned.
 Let's disect that, shall we?

  • Anthonos - "Anthony" [name, masc. nom. sg., o-base] from Anthonos
  • sín - "is" [verb, 3rd sg. act., present simple, indi.] from sín
  • darëthi - "my" [pronoun, general possessive sg., consonant-base] from dar
  • prádo - "friend" [n., general predicative sg., o-base] from prádo
  • tas - "he" [pn., masc. nom. sg., a-base] from tas
  • mano - "have" [v., 3rd sg. act., present simple, indi.] from mano
  • vesem - "house" [n., neuter acc. sg., c.-base] from ves
  • mannin - "big" [adjective, neut. acc. sg., o-base] from manno
  • akot - "near" [preposition]
  • shánide - "sea" [n., neut. locative sg., o-base] from sháno
  • tasta - "his" [pn., masc. poss. sg., a-base] from tas
  • të - "and" [conjunction] (always appears in pairs or groups)
  • tamen - "mother" [n., fem. nom. sg., e-base] from tamen
  • të - "and" [conjunction]
  • rapu - "father" [n., masc. nom. sg, u-base] from rapu
  • etet - "went" [v., 3rd pl. monovalent, past simple, indi.] from eta
  • nají - "to" [preposition]
  • Frankarërne - "France" [nm., neut. lative sg., c.-base] from Frankar
  • jatem - "but" [conjunction]
  • ain - "not" [adverb]
  • rutarevt - "have returned" [v., 3rd pl. mon., present perfect] from rutaro
Phew, that's quite a list.

As you might have noticed, Thropoi has a lot of different conjugations: there are 4 genders, 13 cases, 4 numbers and 5 bases (leaving you with 1040 noun-conjugations), 3 tenses, 3 aspects, 4 voices, 8 persons and 8 moods (resulting in 2304 verb-conjugations, although some are impossible).

This is of course on purpose. The aim of this particular lang is purely art; I want to have a language that one can only interpret and produce with a dictionary at hand. Where my other langs are often quite simple, this is a language that is ridiculously complex, just for the sake of it.

Hwong Zheng word order

Wednesday, December 15th, 2010
As there are no affices in Hwong Zheng, word order is very specific. Basically, every sentence is divided as such:

[Subject] [Verb] [Object] [Additionals]

Where the additionals can be prepositional phrases and adverbs.

Adjectives always follow the noun they belong to. A noun and an adjective are often interchangeable.
Only articles can be placed in front of the noun.

When a segment consists of more than two elements, it is closed by repeating the first word.
If, for instance, a noun is followed by two adjectives, the noun is repeated afterwards to close the group. 
If a preposition is followed by a noun with an adjective, the preposition is repeated.

When repeating, the first half of the syllable, i.e. the consonant and semi-vowel, are omitted. In two-syllable words, only the last syllable-half remains.

E.g.:

Rwoung than dzheu 'oung -- Slave dead three (slave) -- Three dead slaves
Shoun ley syuung 'oun -- House near river (house) -- The house near the river
Wou reng zhing 'ou -- With child ten (with) -- With ten children
Ang wou dzyin hieng 'ou pwen myan 'ang -- Man with knife gold (with) clothed black (man) -- A man with a golden knife wearing black

Hwong Zheng word order

Wednesday, December 15th, 2010
As there are no affices in Hwong Zheng, word order is very specific. Basically, every sentence is divided as such:

[Subject] [Verb] [Object] [Additionals]

Where the additionals can be prepositional phrases and adverbs.

Adjectives always follow the noun they belong to. A noun and an adjective are often interchangeable.
Only articles can be placed in front of the noun.

When a segment consists of more than two elements, it is closed by repeating the first word.
If, for instance, a noun is followed by two adjectives, the noun is repeated afterwards to close the group. 
If a preposition is followed by a noun with an adjective, the preposition is repeated.

When repeating, the first half of the syllable, i.e. the consonant and semi-vowel, are omitted. In two-syllable words, only the last syllable-half remains.

E.g.:

Rwoung than dzheu 'oung -- Slave dead three (slave) -- Three dead slaves
Shoun ley syuung 'oun -- House near river (house) -- The house near the river
Wou reng zhing 'ou -- With child ten (with) -- With ten children
Ang wou dzyin hieng 'ou pwen myan 'ang -- Man with knife gold (with) clothed black (man) -- A man with a golden knife wearing black

Hwong Zheng Phonology

Wednesday, December 15th, 2010
Hwong Zheng, the Tsang language, is a syllable based language; most words consist out of one or two syllables that follow a consistent pattern:

(C) (J) V (N)

C
p, t, d, k ,g, h
p, t, d, k, g, h

r, f, l, m, s, z
r, f, l, m, s, z

sh, zh, th, ts, dz, tsh, dzh
ʃ, ʒ, θ, ts, dz, tʃ, dʒ

J
y, w
j, w

V
e, a, o, oo, i, ie, uu, ou, eu
ɛ, a, ɔ, o, ɪ, i, y, u, ø

N
n, ng, y
n, ŋ, j

Standard romanisation above, IPA below.

There are no conjugations or affices, nor any way to distict a verb from a noun without looking at its context.

Kyeung Kwey Wou An Mieng

Tuesday, December 14th, 2010
This is my 'altlang' (alternative conlang) Hwong Zheng in action: it's a story about a small king. It's dreadfully moralistic and as such does not completely make sense.

I will tell you more about this language at a later stage; for now, enjoy.


Kyeung Kwey Wou An Mieng ‘Ou ‘Eung

Suun kyeung kwey ryedeng zhing ‘eung lwan pang dong thie poung than ‘ie pye hwan lwoo. Dien sahon dyeng tshong heng pa hon ‘eng rie yon pyien tweun pwen myan ‘eun twahon suun ang wou hakoung ‘ien. Yon kwen an ‘on shuun hon kwondan. Hon pyeng «Dien ang akyang. Dien ang fang tshong zuung. Dzhen poung thie geu myoon ‘ie pyeng dien ang meu than ‘eng.» ‘eng.
Yiepeng, kyeung kwey dzien tshong zhang hieng. Rwoung dan zhang hey yon. Reng pezan wou zhang rie hieng lang rwou shyen zhang adan ‘en. Yon kwen an ‘on shuun hon kwondan. Hon pyeng «Dien zhang hieng an. Shyen adan rie shyen gwen hieng.» ‘eng. Kyeung kada pyeng «Shyen ang fang zuung. Shyen ang akyang. Dzhen shyen meu than.» ‘eng. Hon kawoundan pyeng «Myoon, twahon dien rwoung ‘ahon thyouy an.» ‘eng. Mey yon tyoo an. Dzhen yon pwen myan ‘on thing rie shyen than.
Yiepeng, kyeung kwey dzien tshong dyeng woung. Yon dzien ong tagay ong haylou mwoon ong pay shieng ong syuung tsay. Rwoung woung tyang dan yon dzien ‘an an rie dzhen woung than. Kyan woung yon pezan wou dien ‘an hin rie woung than. Lwing woung yon dzien dien ‘ing koushang yon an rie woung than.
Lwoo, pyan mey ong kyeung kwey ong hon kwondan ‘an tshong than. Yon kwen an ‘on shuun hon kwondan. Hon pyeng «Geu myoon pyeng pyan akyang. Dzhen pyan than. Myoon, twahon pyan ‘ahon thyouy an.» ‘eng. Kyeung kada pyeng «Geu shyen pyeng an. Geu shyen thyouy an. Geu shyen fang zuung hey tse hon. Geu shyen akyang.» ‘eng rie hon kwondan than.
Lwoo, pyan mey kyeung kwey ‘an thsong than. An dan hey yon rie an pezan wou yon rie an koushang yon. Kyeung kwey mayon ‘eung lwan mieng an.

The Little Emperor With No Friends

Really, a long time ago, an emperor of ten got his dead father’s power. He was walking through our city and he saw someone wearing black kill a man with an axe. Because he did not understand, he asked his great advisor. He said: “This man is a criminal. This man did bad things. Therefore Your Loveliness’ father said that this man must die.”
Later, the little emperor wanted a golden sword. A servant gave him the sword. The child played with his sword and the gold fell off this iron sword. Because he did not understand, he asked his great advisor. He said: “This sword is not golden. It is only iron and it only looks golden.” The furious emperor said: “This man does bad things. This man is a criminal. So he must die.” The great advisor said: “Loveliness, killing this servant would not be smart.” But he did not listen. So the one wearing black came and the man was dead.
Later, the little emperor was wanting lots of things. He wanted a tiger and an enormous statue and thousands of dogs and a river of tea. Many servants could not give him what he wanted and therefore many were dead. Many boys with whom he played, won and many were dead. Many girls whom he wanted, did not kiss him and many were dead.
Really, all but the little emperor and the great advisor were dead. Because he did not understand, he asked his great advisor. He said: “Your Loveliness said all were criminals. Therefore, all are dead. Loveliness, killing all was not smart.” The furious emperor said: “You yourself said nothing. You yourself are not smart. You yourself acted bad towards me. You yourself are a criminal,” and the great advisor was dead.
Really, all but the little emperor were dead and the little emperor had no friends. Noone gave him anything and noone played with him and noone kissed him. The sad little emperor had no friends.

Kyeung Kwey Wou An Mieng

Tuesday, December 14th, 2010
This is my 'altlang' (alternative conlang) Hwong Zheng in action: it's a story about a small king. It's dreadfully moralistic and as such does not completely make sense.

I will tell you more about this language at a later stage; for now, enjoy.


Kyeung Kwey Wou An Mieng ‘Ou ‘Eung

Suun kyeung kwey ryedeng zhing ‘eung lwan pang dong thie poung than ‘ie pye hwan lwoo. Dien sahon dyeng tshong heng pa hon ‘eng rie yon pyien tweun pwen myan ‘eun twahon suun ang wou hakoung ‘ien. Yon kwen an ‘on shuun hon kwondan. Hon pyeng «Dien ang akyang. Dien ang fang tshong zuung. Dzhen poung thie geu myoon ‘ie pyeng dien ang meu than ‘eng.» ‘eng.
Yiepeng, kyeung kwey dzien tshong zhang hieng. Rwoung dan zhang hey yon. Reng pezan wou zhang rie hieng lang rwou shyen zhang adan ‘en. Yon kwen an ‘on shuun hon kwondan. Hon pyeng «Dien zhang hieng an. Shyen adan rie shyen gwen hieng.» ‘eng. Kyeung kada pyeng «Shyen ang fang zuung. Shyen ang akyang. Dzhen shyen meu than.» ‘eng. Hon kawoundan pyeng «Myoon, twahon dien rwoung ‘ahon thyouy an.» ‘eng. Mey yon tyoo an. Dzhen yon pwen myan ‘on thing rie shyen than.
Yiepeng, kyeung kwey dzien tshong dyeng woung. Yon dzien ong tagay ong haylou mwoon ong pay shieng ong syuung tsay. Rwoung woung tyang dan yon dzien ‘an an rie dzhen woung than. Kyan woung yon pezan wou dien ‘an hin rie woung than. Lwing woung yon dzien dien ‘ing koushang yon an rie woung than.
Lwoo, pyan mey ong kyeung kwey ong hon kwondan ‘an tshong than. Yon kwen an ‘on shuun hon kwondan. Hon pyeng «Geu myoon pyeng pyan akyang. Dzhen pyan than. Myoon, twahon pyan ‘ahon thyouy an.» ‘eng. Kyeung kada pyeng «Geu shyen pyeng an. Geu shyen thyouy an. Geu shyen fang zuung hey tse hon. Geu shyen akyang.» ‘eng rie hon kwondan than.
Lwoo, pyan mey kyeung kwey ‘an thsong than. An dan hey yon rie an pezan wou yon rie an koushang yon. Kyeung kwey mayon ‘eung lwan mieng an.

The Little Emperor With No Friends

Really, a long time ago, an emperor of ten got his dead father’s power. He was walking through our city and he saw someone wearing black kill a man with an axe. Because he did not understand, he asked his great advisor. He said: “This man is a criminal. This man did bad things. Therefore Your Loveliness’ father said that this man must die.”
Later, the little emperor wanted a golden sword. A servant gave him the sword. The child played with his sword and the gold fell off this iron sword. Because he did not understand, he asked his great advisor. He said: “This sword is not golden. It is only iron and it only looks golden.” The furious emperor said: “This man does bad things. This man is a criminal. So he must die.” The great advisor said: “Loveliness, killing this servant would not be smart.” But he did not listen. So the one wearing black came and the man was dead.
Later, the little emperor was wanting lots of things. He wanted a tiger and an enormous statue and thousands of dogs and a river of tea. Many servants could not give him what he wanted and therefore many were dead. Many boys with whom he played, won and many were dead. Many girls whom he wanted, did not kiss him and many were dead.
Really, all but the little emperor and the great advisor were dead. Because he did not understand, he asked his great advisor. He said: “Your Loveliness said all were criminals. Therefore, all are dead. Loveliness, killing all was not smart.” The furious emperor said: “You yourself said nothing. You yourself are not smart. You yourself acted bad towards me. You yourself are a criminal,” and the great advisor was dead.
Really, all but the little emperor were dead and the little emperor had no friends. Noone gave him anything and noone played with him and noone kissed him. The sad little emperor had no friends.

Redone Blog

Tuesday, December 14th, 2010
I've redone the Lurion blog into this new 'Conlangs' blog.

This way, I will also be able to post things about my other conlang creations.

I have reorganised the tags into "Content" (pun intended), "Lurion", "Grammar" and "Phonology". All old 'grammar' posts have been labelled 'lurion grammar', etc.