Archive for the ‘language lessons’ Category

Cave Felicem

Tuesday, August 31st, 2010
Єυтιε Καтαᴧυ!


This picture is taken after Noortje smelled the whipped cream I had to move around the room, because Streepje was trying to enjoy more of it than the fingertip I gave her.

Цαᴧтε δειнυтωн αцεнοрιεc, καтec οικιεc δυнαc нουтαιн ειнιωн ὡc мαтει.

Although seemingly non-hurt.adj, cats home.adj can kill.inf only.adv their cuteness.dat.
Although seemingly harmless, domestic cats can kill with merely their cuteness.

I really run out on inspiration on this picture, so I made up this completely and utterly serious sentence. 'Cause don't think they can't. They just don't have a reason to. One meow is all it takes.

Verbal Vowel Assimilation (part 2)

Friday, August 27th, 2010
Let's take a look at the verb stems alone:

Indi.: мεн-, нοιмε-, οιδα-, παнxο-, δεικн-
Con.: мεнe-, нοιмe-, οιδά-, παнxό-, δεικнύ-
Opt.: мεнε͂ι-, нοιмε͂ι-, οιδᾶι-, παнxο͂ι-, δεικнῦι-

There are five different verb types: verbs without a thematic vowel and ε-, α-, o- and υ-thematic verbs. υ-thematic vowels do not appear in the indicative.

In the coniunctive, the thematic vowel is prolongued. ε>e; α>ά; ο>ό, υ>ύ.
Verb stems without a thematic vowel get an -e- added.

In the optative, -ε͂ι- is added to the verb stem.

Verbal Vowel Assimilation (part 2)

Friday, August 27th, 2010
Let's take a look at the verb stems alone:

Indi.: мεн-, нοιмε-, οιδα-, παнxο-, δεικн-
Con.: мεнe-, нοιмe-, οιδά-, παнxό-, δεικнύ-
Opt.: мεнε͂ι-, нοιмε͂ι-, οιδᾶι-, παнxο͂ι-, δεικнῦι-

There are five different verb types: verbs without a thematic vowel and ε-, α-, o- and υ-thematic verbs. υ-thematic vowels do not appear in the indicative.

In the coniunctive, the thematic vowel is prolongued. ε>e; α>ά; ο>ό, υ>ύ.
Verb stems without a thematic vowel get an -e- added.

In the optative, -ε͂ι- is added to the verb stem.

Verbal Vowel Assimilation (part 2)

Friday, August 27th, 2010
Let's take a look at the verb stems alone:

Indi.: мεн-, нοιмε-, οιδα-, παнxο-, δεικн-
Con.: мεнe-, нοιмe-, οιδά-, παнxό-, δεικнύ-
Opt.: мεнε͂ι-, нοιмε͂ι-, οιδᾶι-, παнxο͂ι-, δεικнῦι-

There are five different verb types: verbs without a thematic vowel and ε-, α-, o- and υ-thematic verbs. υ-thematic vowels do not appear in the indicative.

In the coniunctive, the thematic vowel is prolongued. ε>e; α>ά; ο>ό, υ>ύ.
Verb stems without a thematic vowel get an -e- added.

In the optative, -ε͂ι- is added to the verb stem.

Verbal Vowel Assimilation

Thursday, August 26th, 2010
As a response to yesterday's comment, I will run through the examples given their again, this time with pre- and post-assimilation forms.

If you haven't read seen the TALVAC yet, please 'tab' it as a reference.

The Lurioneski verbs have the following suffices for person and number:

1sg (I)
2sg (you) -ὶc
3sg (he) -
1pl (we) -ὸмα
2pl (you) -ὶтε
3pl (they) -εc

For instance, "I am" is мεнω and "you are" (pl) is мεнιтε.

However, most verbs also have a thematic vowel, which is either -ε, -α, -ο or -υ.
Ignoring the last one (as it is a rather tricky one), they assimilate as usual, meaning they combine with other vowels (in this case those of the verb suffices).

ε+ω > ω; ε+ὶ > ε͂ι*; ε+ὸ > ω; ε+ε > ε
E.g.: нοιмεὶc > нοιмε͂ιc ("you name"); нοιмεὸмα > нοιмωмα ("we name").

α+ω > ῶ; α+ὶ > ὶ; α+ὸ > ῶ; α+ε > α
E.g.: οιδαω > οιδῶ ("I know"); οιδαὶтε > οιδὶтε ("you know" (pl)).

ο+ω > ω; ο+ὶ > ὶ; ο+ὸ > ω; ο+ε > ο
E.g.: παнxοὶ > παнxὶ ("he eats"); παнxοεc > παнxοc ("they eat");

Got it? Great, 'cause it only gets harder.


The Optative is quite easy. It just puts -ε͂ι- between the verb root and the suffix. But again, the vowels assimilate (when possible).

ε+ε͂ι > ε͂ι; α+ε͂ι > ᾶι; ο+ε͂ι > ο͂ι;
E.g.: οιδαε͂ιω > οιδᾶιω ("may I know"); παнxοε͂ιεc > παнxο͂ιεc > παнxο͂ιc ("may they eat").


The Coniunctive does something tricky. When verbs have a thematic vowel, it lengthens it, causing it to assimilate differently. (When there is no thematic vowel, it simply puts -e- in between.) Let's take the same examples as before, but this time in the coniunctive:


e+ω > eω; e+ὶ > eὶ; e+ὸ > eὸ; e+ε > e
E.g.: нοιмeὶc > нοιмeὶc ("you could name"); нοιмeὸмα > нοιмeὸмα ("we could name").

ά+ω > άω; ά+ὶ > άὶ; ά+ὸ > άὸ; ά+ε > ά
E.g.: οιδάω > οιδάω ("I could know"); οιδάὶтε > οιδάὶтε ("you could know" (pl)).

ό+ω > όω; ο+ὶ > όὶ; ό+ὸ > όὸ; ό+ε > ό
E.g.: παнxόὶ > παнxόὶ ("he eats"); παнxόεc > παнxόc ("they eat");


There is no visual distinction between the indicative 3pl and coniunctive 3pl of a verb (e.g. between παнxοc and παнxοc), as accents are rarely used. They are pronounced differently: [pɐnxɔs] and [pɐnxos] respectively.

(* I changed this one, but the chart still says ε+ὶ > ὶ.)

So there you have it.

Verbal Vowel Assimilation

Thursday, August 26th, 2010
As a response to yesterday's comment, I will run through the examples given their again, this time with pre- and post-assimilation forms.

If you haven't read seen the TALVAC yet, please 'tab' it as a reference.

The Lurioneski verbs have the following suffices for person and number:

1sg (I)
2sg (you) -ὶc
3sg (he) -
1pl (we) -ὸмα
2pl (you) -ὶтε
3pl (they) -εc

For instance, "I am" is мεнω and "you are" (pl) is мεнιтε.

However, most verbs also have a thematic vowel, which is either -ε, -α, -ο or -υ.
Ignoring the last one (as it is a rather tricky one), they assimilate as usual, meaning they combine with other vowels (in this case those of the verb suffices).

ε+ω > ω; ε+ὶ > ε͂ι*; ε+ὸ > ω; ε+ε > ε
E.g.: нοιмεὶc > нοιмε͂ιc ("you name"); нοιмεὸмα > нοιмωмα ("we name").

α+ω > ῶ; α+ὶ > ὶ; α+ὸ > ῶ; α+ε > α
E.g.: οιδαω > οιδῶ ("I know"); οιδαὶтε > οιδὶтε ("you know" (pl)).

ο+ω > ω; ο+ὶ > ὶ; ο+ὸ > ω; ο+ε > ο
E.g.: παнxοὶ > παнxὶ ("he eats"); παнxοεc > παнxοc ("they eat");

Got it? Great, 'cause it only gets harder.


The Optative is quite easy. It just puts -ε͂ι- between the verb root and the suffix. But again, the vowels assimilate (when possible).

ε+ε͂ι > ε͂ι; α+ε͂ι > ᾶι; ο+ε͂ι > ο͂ι;
E.g.: οιδαε͂ιω > οιδᾶιω ("may I know"); παнxοε͂ιεc > παнxο͂ιεc > παнxο͂ιc ("may they eat").


The Coniunctive does something tricky. When verbs have a thematic vowel, it lengthens it, causing it to assimilate differently. (When there is no thematic vowel, it simply puts -e- in between.) Let's take the same examples as before, but this time in the coniunctive:


e+ω > eω; e+ὶ > eὶ; e+ὸ > eὸ; e+ε > e
E.g.: нοιмeὶc > нοιмeὶc ("you could name"); нοιмeὸмα > нοιмeὸмα ("we could name").

ά+ω > άω; ά+ὶ > άὶ; ά+ὸ > άὸ; ά+ε > ά
E.g.: οιδάω > οιδάω ("I could know"); οιδάὶтε > οιδάὶтε ("you could know" (pl)).

ό+ω > όω; ο+ὶ > όὶ; ό+ὸ > όὸ; ό+ε > ό
E.g.: παнxόὶ > παнxόὶ ("he eats"); παнxόεc > παнxόc ("they eat");


There is no visual distinction between the indicative 3pl and coniunctive 3pl of a verb (e.g. between παнxοc and παнxοc), as accents are rarely used. They are pronounced differently: [pɐnxɔs] and [pɐnxos] respectively.

(* I changed this one, but the chart still says ε+ὶ > ὶ.)

So there you have it.

Verbal Vowel Assimilation

Thursday, August 26th, 2010
As a response to yesterday's comment, I will run through the examples given their again, this time with pre- and post-assimilation forms.

If you haven't read seen the TALVAC yet, please 'tab' it as a reference.

The Lurioneski verbs have the following suffices for person and number:

1sg (I)
2sg (you) -ὶc
3sg (he) -
1pl (we) -ὸмα
2pl (you) -ὶтε
3pl (they) -εc

For instance, "I am" is мεнω and "you are" (pl) is мεнιтε.

However, most verbs also have a thematic vowel, which is either -ε, -α, -ο or -υ.
Ignoring the last one (as it is a rather tricky one), they assimilate as usual, meaning they combine with other vowels (in this case those of the verb suffices).

ε+ω > ω; ε+ὶ > ε͂ι*; ε+ὸ > ω; ε+ε > ε
E.g.: нοιмεὶc > нοιмε͂ιc ("you name"); нοιмεὸмα > нοιмωмα ("we name").

α+ω > ῶ; α+ὶ > ὶ; α+ὸ > ῶ; α+ε > α
E.g.: οιδαω > οιδῶ ("I know"); οιδαὶтε > οιδὶтε ("you know" (pl)).

ο+ω > ω; ο+ὶ > ὶ; ο+ὸ > ω; ο+ε > ο
E.g.: παнxοὶ > παнxὶ ("he eats"); παнxοεc > παнxοc ("they eat");

Got it? Great, 'cause it only gets harder.


The Optative is quite easy. It just puts -ε͂ι- between the verb root and the suffix. But again, the vowels assimilate (when possible).

ε+ε͂ι > ε͂ι; α+ε͂ι > ᾶι; ο+ε͂ι > ο͂ι;
E.g.: οιδαε͂ιω > οιδᾶιω ("may I know"); παнxοε͂ιεc > παнxο͂ιεc > παнxο͂ιc ("may they eat").


The Coniunctive does something tricky. When verbs have a thematic vowel, it lengthens it, causing it to assimilate differently. (When there is no thematic vowel, it simply puts -e- in between.) Let's take the same examples as before, but this time in the coniunctive:


e+ω > eω; e+ὶ > eὶ; e+ὸ > eὸ; e+ε > e
E.g.: нοιмeὶc > нοιмeὶc ("you could name"); нοιмeὸмα > нοιмeὸмα ("we could name").

ά+ω > άω; ά+ὶ > άὶ; ά+ὸ > άὸ; ά+ε > ά
E.g.: οιδάω > οιδάω ("I could know"); οιδάὶтε > οιδάὶтε ("you could know" (pl)).

ό+ω > όω; ο+ὶ > όὶ; ό+ὸ > όὸ; ό+ε > ό
E.g.: παнxόὶ > παнxόὶ ("he eats"); παнxόεc > παнxόc ("they eat");


There is no visual distinction between the indicative 3pl and coniunctive 3pl of a verb (e.g. between παнxοc and παнxοc), as accents are rarely used. They are pronounced differently: [pɐnxɔs] and [pɐnxos] respectively.

(* I changed this one, but the chart still says ε+ὶ > ὶ.)

So there you have it.

Coniunctive and Optative

Tuesday, August 24th, 2010
Єυтιε Καтαᴧυ!

Hell, it's about time.

"Єι καтec тυрαιc, мεнειι ουрυ мου κᴧαccιтeрιεгε."

If cats rule.opt.3p, be.opt.3s life my nice.comp.n-stress.
"If cats would rule, my life would be even nicer."

Today's sentence features the brand new* Optative.

(*When I say new, I mean 'new to you'; also, it's not completely new:)

What used to be the Coniunctive has been split into two modi: the (new) Coniunctive and the  Optative; leaving us with a total of 3 different modi (including the Indicative):

Indicative
мεнω, διc, нοιмι, δεικнοмα, παнxιтε, οιδαc
мεнοнтιι, нοιмωнтιι, παнxωнтιι, οιδωнтιι
The Indicative is used to state facts and other things that seem to be undeniable.

Coniunctive (+ε, +e)
мεнeω, δάιc, нοιмeι, δεικнυοмα, παнxόιтε, οιδαc
мεнeοнтιι, нοιмeοнтιι, παнxοοнтιι,  οιδαοнтιι
The Coniunctive is used to describe possibilities, uncertainties or irrealities.

Optative (+ει)
мεнειω, δαιιc, нοιмειι, δεικнυιοмα, παнxοιιтε, οιδαιc
мεнειοнтιι, нοιмειοнтιι, παнxοιοнтιι, οιδαιοнтιι
The Optative is used declare wishes, goals or unfortunate irrealities .

The katalu sentence is of course an example of the last of the optative's functions. She obviously is well aware that cats don't rule the world, but if they would, life would kick-ass.

Coniunctive and Optative

Tuesday, August 24th, 2010
Єυтιε Καтαᴧυ!

Hell, it's about time.

"Єι καтec тυрαιc, мεнειι ουрυ мου κᴧαccιтeрιεгε."

If cats rule.opt.3p, be.opt.3s life my nice.comp.n-stress.
"If cats would rule, my life would be even nicer."

Today's sentence features the brand new* Optative.

(*When I say new, I mean 'new to you'; also, it's not completely new:)

What used to be the Coniunctive has been split into two modi: the (new) Coniunctive and the  Optative; leaving us with a total of 3 different modi (including the Indicative):

Indicative
мεнω, διc, нοιмι, δεικнοмα, παнxιтε, οιδαc
мεнοнтιι, нοιмωнтιι, παнxωнтιι, οιδωнтιι
The Indicative is used to state facts and other things that seem to be undeniable.

Coniunctive (+ε, +e)
мεнeω, δάιc, нοιмeι, δεικнυοмα, παнxόιтε, οιδαc
мεнeοнтιι, нοιмeοнтιι, παнxοοнтιι,  οιδαοнтιι
The Coniunctive is used to describe possibilities, uncertainties or irrealities.

Optative (+ει)
мεнειω, δαιιc, нοιмειι, δεικнυιοмα, παнxοιιтε, οιδαιc
мεнειοнтιι, нοιмειοнтιι, παнxοιοнтιι, οιδαιοнтιι
The Optative is used declare wishes, goals or unfortunate irrealities .

The katalu sentence is of course an example of the last of the optative's functions. She obviously is well aware that cats don't rule the world, but if they would, life would kick-ass.

Coniunctive and Optative

Tuesday, August 24th, 2010
Єυтιε Καтαᴧυ!

Hell, it's about time.

"Єι καтec тυрαιc, мεнειι ουрυ мου κᴧαccιтeрιεгε."

If cats rule.opt.3p, be.opt.3s life my nice.comp.n-stress.
"If cats would rule, my life would be even nicer."

Today's sentence features the brand new* Optative.

(*When I say new, I mean 'new to you'; also, it's not completely new:)

What used to be the Coniunctive has been split into two modi: the (new) Coniunctive and the  Optative; leaving us with a total of 3 different modi (including the Indicative):

Indicative
мεнω, διc, нοιмι, δεικнοмα, παнxιтε, οιδαc
мεнοнтιι, нοιмωнтιι, παнxωнтιι, οιδωнтιι
The Indicative is used to state facts and other things that seem to be undeniable.

Coniunctive (+ε, +e)
мεнeω, δάιc, нοιмeι, δεικнυοмα, παнxόιтε, οιδαc
мεнeοнтιι, нοιмeοнтιι, παнxοοнтιι,  οιδαοнтιι
The Coniunctive is used to describe possibilities, uncertainties or irrealities.

Optative (+ει)
мεнειω, δαιιc, нοιмειι, δεικнυιοмα, παнxοιιтε, οιδαιc
мεнειοнтιι, нοιмειοнтιι, παнxοιοнтιι, οιδαιοнтιι
The Optative is used declare wishes, goals or unfortunate irrealities .

The katalu sentence is of course an example of the last of the optative's functions. She obviously is well aware that cats don't rule the world, but if they would, life would kick-ass.