Archive for May, 2010

Comparison and Diminutive

Saturday, May 29th, 2010
There are 5 degrees of comparison (as opposed to the 3 most languages have):

ὁрιтαтιι - highest
ὁрιтeрιι - higher
ὁрιι - high
ὁрιмeрιι - less high
ὁрιcαтιι - least high

The first ι is very weak, so root and infix might assimilate. E.g.: ευтαтιι ('best'; instead of ευтιтαтιι), ᴧυмeрιι ('less low'; instead of ᴧυмιмeрιι) or ὑδecαтιι ('least wet'; instead of ὑδeιcαтιι).
This will, however, only happen with roots that end with a vowel or with the same consonant. For instance, note the difference between φαcαтιι/φαcιтαтιι ('least hot' and 'hottest'; from φαcιι) and φαcтιι/φαcтαтιι ('thick' and 'thickest'; from φαcтιι).

Not only adjectives can be compared, also nouns, adverbs and verbs.
E.g.: εтαрιтαтιc ('the most/best friend') or ιω тεᴧxιтeрιωн ('I go faster').

To compare with something, the comparing dative is used: ι мεнω ευтeрιι cει - 'I am better than you'.

Finally, there is also a diminutive, used to indicate a smaller version of something. It has the infix -ιнт-. For instance: καтιнтιc - 'a little cat'.

Omo

Saturday, May 29th, 2010

Glyph of the word 'omo'.

omo

  • (v.) to think, to cogitate, to comtemplate
  • (n.) thinking, thinker
  • (adj.) thinking

A omo ei ti fatu…
“I’m thinking of a number…”

Notes: If you guessed 27, you’re right!

This is another setup word for translating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The “real” world will come tomorrow. 8O

The iku for omo is a true ikuiku. There’s the thinking dude there with his furrowed brows, thinking about…something. Perhaps he’s thinking about ice cream. That’s what I’m thinking about. Mmmm… Ice cream. Love it. Can’t live without it. I think I’m going to go get some right this moment…

‘sandat: to be rough

Saturday, May 29th, 2010

Structures can exist or not, another characteristic of a surface is how hard or soft it is, and this is a 3rd axis: how rough or smooth a surface is. These words are new ones so please check the new Incomplete Rejistanian Dictionary and update possible offline-copies of it.

What exactly is the difference between hamik and sandat you ask? Good question: hamik does not mean that the structure is necessarily very prominent and comparisons and adverbs like al would refer to a gradient in regularity. The wood of my bookshelf has a smooth surface but it is has the structure of the wood and thus hamiks.

Also sounds can be sandat if they are just something you cannot stand. Fingernails on blackboard is a good example. It does not have to be a loud sound, just one, which is incredibly annoying. Roads full of potholes or unasphalted ones also can be described using this term.

Example: Yjik’het’ny salankij min’sandat al. (road mountain 3pl-be_rough very. Mountain roads are very uneven) listen


Hole

Friday, May 28th, 2010

Glyph of the word 'hole'.

hole

  • (n.) neck

A male take ei i ia pokane o hole.
“I shall wear you about my neck.”

Notes: Happy Caturday! :D

Today’s cat word comes from this picture:

Keli as a stole.

My wife Erin is fond of taking our cat and putting her about her shoulders as if she’s a stole. Keli is actually amused by this. What she likes best is getting off, where Erin has to bend down so that her back is flat. Sometimes Keli decides this is a good place to sit, and she’ll sit there comfortably for minutes while Erin struggles to maintain the appropriate posture.

I have no idea what the deal with this iku is. The Kamakawi face is there, as is the glyph for ho. I guess it’s positioned in such a way that it indicates where the neck…starts…? Or ends? I don’t know. It doesn’t make any sense at all to me. It’s okay, though. I give it a 6/10.

‘skede: to be hard

Friday, May 28th, 2010

Another word, which in my humble opinion sounds like it really should. ‘skede refers to the hardness of a substance, not that of for example a maths problem. These would be ‘ohix or in the more extreme form ‘ma’ta ‘rala’kimtu (impossible to make work).

The derivations work as expected.

Example: Vesa’het mi’skede. (the leaf is hard) listen


Âdlantki words of the moment

Friday, May 28th, 2010

Unlike last time where I only managed to work with one word, this time I actually have a word and a half! At this rate I’ll be writing books in no time.

The Âdlantki word for a dog is soné /sɔ̀ne/. This comes from the same IE root as Greek κύων, Latin canis, English hound, and the like. It also happens to be a word with an irregular plural: instead of *sonos—which I think would be the usual plural ending—it’s sâmbos /sə̀mbɔs/. This happens because the -v- in the original plural ending -vos, in combination with the -n- of the stem, changed to a stop instead of dropping out as would be expected. And because the stem vowel ended up in a closed syllable which was unstressed at the time, it ended up reducing to schwa.

I decided this might be a word common enough in the plural that analogy hasn’t leveled it—yet, anyway. I’m pretty sure the irregularity drops out, one way or another, by the time of modern Atlantic.

To go along with the word for “dog”, I started work on a word for “to bark”, though I didn’t get as far as finalizing it today. It was probably, at one time, meant to be onomatopoeic; the root is **gar-. But already by the time of proto-Hadwan it had lost most of its barky quality: the basic forms, with first-person endings hyphenated out, are *žarēy-ōmi (normal), *žežirās-m (aorist), and *žežarōk-ka (stative). But don’t quote me on those, yet. The proto-Hadwan verb is, from looking at these notes, considerably more byzantine than the prior entries in my vocab transform scratch file suggest.

Aemu

Thursday, May 27th, 2010

Glyph of the word 'aemu'.

aemu

  • (v.) to have within, to have inside
  • (v.) to bear, to carry
  • (v.) to come with
  • (adj.) inside, within

Aemu kata tie pale!
“The house comes with a pig!”

Notes: Kind of a strange word to translate into English, since the translations can themselves have other meanings. This means “comes with” in the sense of, “My box of Crispix comes with a toy surprise!” It doesn’t mean “comes with” in the sense of, “Ah, here is my good friend, and—oh drat, it looks like her husband is coming with her.”

In translating the second sentence of the first article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the first troublesome word I came across was “endowed”. What the heck is “endowed”?! If you think about its etymology, it comes from the same root that gave us “dowry”. The Kamakawi word has absolutely nothing to do with arcane wedding rituals. This one is derived from ae, the word meaning “inside”. If something is physically inside of something else, then one might say (quite literally) that it comes with that something. I, for example, come with high cholesterol. Why? Genetics. I’m skinny as a whip and strong as an ox (or probably strong like a vervet monkey), but that cholesterol’s right in me whether I like it or not, and no matter how much I run. Thus have I been “endowed”.

This word signals the start of the second sentence. This one’s not as bad as the first, I think. But I don’t really remember the first sentence—or the second one, for that matter—so it may be a passing fancy. We’ll see as the days go by.

Fufai

Thursday, May 27th, 2010
After having only a broken grill for almost a year we finally bought a new one. I had the first home grilled steak that I've had in a long time. And boyfriend cooks amazing things on the grill, especially steaks. He's got a Hank Hill like love of propane. So our house was very happy to day. In honor of that, this is going to be a food post, specifically about meats.

In English we have lots of words for animals that we only use when talking about meat. Beef, mutton, pork, etc. We seem to reserve these words for mammals mostly. Birds and fish don't tend to get different words. Chicken is chicken, duck is duck, salmon is salmon etc.

Not all natlangs do this of course. In Chinese the word for beef (牛肉) amounts to "Cow meat". I've taken a cue for Chinese for talking about meat in Reisu. In Reisu I try to think of no animal being above any other, and in this way the language reflects that. There's no special words for the animal simply because it's dead and going to be eaten. When talking about the meat of an animal we must remember the animal itself.

The word for meat is 'fufai', and we can pair that with the name of the animal. So beef in Reisu is 'fufai biho' or 'fufai bihomuka' depending on the context of the conversation. Reason being is 'biho' is a general term that can be used for many different large hooved animals domesticated or wild, although most commonly it refers to cattle. So if you need to specify cow specifically over another large ungulate like a giraffe we can say 'bihomuka', 'muka' meaning domesticated.

Below is a chart of animal names that we might use in a phrase with 'fufai'. 'Muka' is in parentheses if it's optional. If it's not in parentheses it's not optional.

CowBiho(muka)
ChickenVexumuka
PigHopi(muka)
TurkeyVexubila
SheepMukatoxi
FishXudo

ly: three

Thursday, May 27th, 2010

Sorry for this almost contentless posting. A ‘quick’ call to my significant other took more than 2 hours.

Example: Najny’het ly min’la’itva. Najny ly’het mi’la’yri’ta jarav. (Attempt 3 3PL-PST-fail. Attempt 3-ORD 3S-PST-succeed-NEG close. 3 attempts failed. The third almost succeeded.) listen


Numbers

Wednesday, May 26th, 2010
The numeral system is quite simple (as is the rest of the lurion grammar).

Numbers 1-10, 100, 1000 and 10,000

1 - ἑιc (῾eου, ῾eι, ἑн)
2 - δцοc (δουc, δευ, δцαc)
3 - трεc (трωc, трειc, трεc)
4 - тεтрαc (тεтрωc, тεтрαιc, тεтрαc)
5 - πεнтεc (*)
6 - ἑκтεc
7 - επтεc
8 - οκтεc
9 - нαнтεc
10 - δeκεc
100 - zeнεc
1000 - βουᴧεc
10,000 - мυрιαδεc

(* All other numbers are conjugated as plural neuter nouns. In fact, they are plural neuter nouns.)
---

For numbers 20, 30, 40 etc; 200, 300, 400 etc; 2000, 3000, 4000 etc and 20,000, 30,000, 40,000 etc, the prefices for the digits 2-9 exist:

δυο-, трι-, трα-, πεн-, ἑκ-, επ-, οκ- and нαн-

For instance, 20 is δυοδeκεc and 70,000 is επмυрιαδεc.

For the digits behind a tenfold, hundredfold etc, the infices for the digits 1-9 exist:

-εн-, -δυ-, -трε-, -тεтрε-, -πεн-, -εκт-, -επт-, -οκт- and -нαнт-

For instance, 14 is δeκтεтрεc and 392 is трιzeннαнтδυεc or, shortened, трιzeнαнδυεc.

100 and 10,000 are the most important, 10 and 1000 are only used when it is necessary. Other examples:

трαβουᴧεc - four.thousand - 4000
οκмυрιαδπεнβουᴧεc - eight.tenthousand.five.thousand - 85,000
ἑκмυрιαδδeκεнεc - six.tenthousand.ten.one - 60,011
επмυрιαδδυнαнzeнοκттεтрεc - seven.tenthousand.two.nine.hundred.eight.four - 72,984

(That sure is a mouthful. Then again, so is seventytwothousandninehundredeightyfour.)