Archive for August, 2010

Kinship Terms

Monday, August 30th, 2010
There are many kinship terms in Reisu. Most of them come from four roots: Data for father, mama for mother, gati for child and yoti for sibling.

If there are more than one siblings being discussed, or there is a need to differentiate which sibling we can do this many ways. We can divide it by gender saying yotikipa for a sister or yotigatu for a brother. It can also be divided by age, this is usually done with numbers with 1 being the oldest. So yotiha would be the oldest yoti being discussed.

Gati can be used in the same way: gatikipa for daughter, gatigatu for son, gatiha for oldest child, gatitu for second child, etc. Unlike daughter in English gatikipa can be used to refer to any female child, not just ones in relation to their parent. Gatigatu is the same way.

To refer to someone of one generation away we can use the suffix -dua, similarly to how we use 'grand' in English. So datadua is grand father, mamadua is grand mother, gatidua is grand child.

There are some kinship terms that don't use these roots. Most notably koko, which refers to a spouse. Often times this is used as a term of endearment via adding the -xai suffix. Kokoxai is a term of endearment only used in long term relationships.

The Story Part 1

Monday, August 30th, 2010

Túhúta’i: Boá! So, I’ve spent the past hoursesh translating a story. It’s from a Gene Wolfe chapter. There is no way I am going to finish it in six days, I am nowhere near fluent enough to do this fast. However, I have discovered a lot of little things that I like which occur in the language. So, this will be my post today. I am going to keep working on this, and once I hit 500~ words, I will consider this goal done. I hope to translate the entire story. It’s from The Book of the New Sun, the best fantasy and science fiction book I’ve ever read. Enjoy.


Boá. Fuó ô úru dáo. Tún llevwela tádaï gúno fu dáo. Yéshdaï hio ô oákódú. Wosh yó as, wôsh tûn níchhóshî. Yó rew llevwela oákódú rún fu úru dáo. Tún ki fu llevwela tádaï úru dáo, hóra fwód tádaï tyellínú, fwôd ro mêth nídá daha góy ivanshîún, tuáda thórdá óll iéllason.

Boá. This generic evidential is. I stories many such is. Some yes generic made-perf.-thing. Time although now we(trnc.) forget-subord..  Maybe stories fictional person to evidential is. I also attribution stories many evi. is, because these.things many weird which not you south-adj. action able dream-sb.-inf. islands north in happen-iterative-moment.-pl..

Hello. This is a true story. I have many such stories. Yes, some are made-up. Although now is the time which we have forgotten. Maybe to someone these stories are true. I also know many true stories, because many strange things which you southerners are not able to dream happen in the northern islands.


  • úru = evidential epistemic mood. personal information.
  • Stories are something that you have as part of your person, they aren’t possessed or known. They are part of you. Hence fu.
  • passive participle: the verb (clipped form if trisyllabic+) + aspect + =dú (thing)
  • fu can also mean to, or for. attribution.
  • =dá is used to make something an adjective.


Tún Glaícies muc glâ tuá thor dálá tuáda kyu dáshî odhóes. Tuá á tûn ró án llár ú ó ngullí ú, skimpáesh tún kyu, llénaóesh. Ngilvuesh romó dîn ró dáowó. Kena ngilvuesh fu Anskar, Hallvard, Gundulf dáo. Hallvard wábá tún fu dáo. Tún reeshïn í tee llénaówohoes, yuy tún kllirk óll goy hnuwicíkícúwún. Dín ófi tuntíbeyesh be llístóïkaones ó llam. Reelán tûn goáesh, ró llamí llamádheewówopon ó bíwí tún kyu li yantilska, ó dárrhíesh ó tuntíbesh tún kyu li.

I Glaicies from which island north most islands of is-sb. come-perf.-sg.. island the we of on man a and woman a, elders me to, live-perf.-pauc.. son-pauc. three them to are-perf. names sons to Anskar, Hallvard, Gundulf are. Hallvard father I to is. I large (be) until live-perf.transitional i fishing.boat on able help-repetitive-inceptive-inf. he so brothers with hunt-perf.-reversative-terminative and fish. instead we toil-impf.-pauc., so.that fish caught-passive-usitative-semelfactive and mother my to brought.home, and older sisters and brothers my to.

I come from Glaicies, which is the northernmost of the islands. On our island live a man and a woman, who are my grandparents. They had three sons. They were named Anskar, Hallvard, and Gundulf. I became large enough that I was able to begin helping on the fishing boat. Because of this he stopped hunting and fishing with his brothers. Instead, we toiled together, so that fish were caught and brought home to my mother, and my older sisters and brothers.


  • dáshî can be the reduced form of dáo. Also, note that the copula can be left out occasionally. (although never when providing attribution with fa or .)
  • is interchangeable with kyu, although the latter is more commonly used for attribution, while the first more often deals with physical possession.
  • the relative clause clipping can be dropped, if a pause is added, and if it is next to the verb being modified.
  • ú is the indefinite article.
  • Names and fathers are inalienable. This is a fluid category, and doesn’t stop with the body.
  • A coordinating conjunction is not needed for lists.
  • í is an article (perhaps better called a clitic) which is used with any word to make it a noun. It is also a stative verb, of sorts. It’s hard to pin down. The best translation of this sentence might be: I lived, changing, until I became large. But it could also be translated as I lived to the point of being large. Or of having the largeness. I’m not sure í works, grammatically – it certainly wouldn’t in English – but we’ll run with it until I run into some serious errors. It only works as a derivational morpheme – it cannot, for instance, work for a noun. Perhaps “the quality of being large exists” is a good translation. I lived changing until the quality of being large existed.
  • If a verb is being used with the same aspects and clitics as a preceding verb, they can all be dropped.
  • tuntíbesh is an irregular paucal form. For pronouns, the <y> and <w> are not inserted between identical vowels.


And here is some vocabulary:

  • agthún v. to row
  • álina adj. weak
  • belába adj. sly
  • boná adj. deep
  • bóshop n. squall
  • bóshopaké n. gale
  • bóshung n. tempest
  • bóshúngdá adj. tempestuous
  • brashún v. to dread
  • brrunetá n. sliver
  • brrunóro n. wood
  • cha part. than
  • cha prep. about, concerning
  • chedún v. to climb
  • dadún v. to break
  • dáktún v. to best
  • dosh n. breaker (wave)
  • suffix thing (=dú)
  • emillún v. to blunt
  • go n. toil
  • part. back
  • gúno adj. some (a specific)
  • híni n. place
  • hio part. yes, of course (post-postive)
  • hnuwún v. to help
  • iún v. to happen, occur
  • í part. stative existential verb, nominalizing clitic and article
  • kirk n. boat
  • kllirk adj. fishing (boat)
  • lekúaún v. to pass
  • lláckún v. to bet
  • llí adj. sweet
  • lukiún v. to perch
  • míéçún v. to lie (down)
  • moánóth adv. safely
  • nabínún v. to sound
  • náeelún v. to send
  • nato adj. strong
  • neéng n. gloaming
  • Ngáth n. god
  • ngíenún v. to wish
  • ngoull adj. fine
  • ngúd adj. sound
  • níçhhún v. to forget
  • ník n. point
  • ninaún v. to lull
  • nllónún v. to ponder
  • noh adj. dead
  • nómyá adj. lustrous
  • nongá n. soul
  • nurshún v. to toss
  • ófi part. because of this, for this reason (entailment)
  • óloún v. to founder
  • parr n. mooring
  • póçhhún v. to rage
  • prongaún v. to pray
  • radún v. to work, use
  • reelán conj. instead
  • reínún v. to wake
  • rew conj. maybe
  • rhun n. grave
  • part. genitive marker
  • rohô part. nor
  • ron adj. dark
  • safe adj. moan
  • selláún v. to lie (word)
  • shlleen n. battle
  • stón adj. wondrous
  • tag pp. against
  • tee part. until, to the time
  • thuón n. soil
  • tllínina n. lullaby
  • trín n. port
  • tuá suffix reflexive (=tuá)
  • tuntíbe n. brother
  • tuntún v. to walk
  • ú part. the indefinite article
  • adj. listless
  • wáhin n. doldrums
  • wéna n. bride
  • yáícú n. morning
  • yantilskaún v. to bring home
  • yantilún v. to bring
  • conj. although
  • yuy conj. enough that, so that I was able


This, too, was a good thing.

What is that?

Monday, August 30th, 2010
A tí da chet?

Da tí yodna knihan

A tí da kakanian knihan?

Da tí yodin nenayon

And so begins the third dialogue between a teacher and a pupil. I will jump straight into the dialogue this time, rather than post my draft version.

First the pupil asks What is that? Literally in ghostian, question-tag is that what. Pupil earns some points for identifying the object as feminine case in ghostian and uses the feminine pronoun, da. Don't put it past a pupil to deliberately ask for a word that is obvious. Pupil also uses the question word chet, what? In ghostian it is placed as the object of the sentence.

Teacher replies It is a book. Books are considered inanimate objects and take the accusative case as an object. Your average book tends to tolerate this sort of prejudice, but that's not to mean it enjoys it. The indefinite article before it is yodna. It does not take the accusative ending, although it is marked as feminine with the a-ending. The indefinite pronoun is used less often than in English, and tends to mean One or A Certain... Pupil asks What Kind of book is it, which is another leading question. Which or What Kind is treated as an adjective and has a longer ending than yodna.

Teacher says It is a dictionary. This word took a lot of thinking out. None of my grammars have provided me with a word for dictionary and I eventually went back to the oldest forms of the Old Tongue where a dictionary is called a collection of words. In the end I settled for this form. It means something like a word-tool and is used for keeping words in. The ending makes it neuter and before it yodin drops the a-ending from the feminine word.

New Book by Guy Deutscher

Sunday, August 29th, 2010

Cover of Through the Language Glass

One of my favorite books on language is Guy Deutscher’s The Unfolding of Language. It’s accessible, informative, and just a lot of fun to read. Well, I just discovered that he’ll be coming out with a new one on August 31 (That’s in 2 days!): Through the Language Glass. Here’s the product description from

Linguistics has long shied away from claiming any link between a language and the culture of its speakers: too much simplistic (even bigoted) chatter about the romance of Italian and the goose-stepping orderliness of German has made serious thinkers wary of the entire subject. But now, acclaimed linguist Guy Deutscher has dared to reopen the issue. Can culture influence language—and vice versa? Can different languages lead their speakers to different thoughts? Could our experience of the world depend on whether our language has a word for “blue”?

Challenging the consensus that the fundaments of language are hard-wired in our genes and thus universal, Deutscher argues that the answer to all these questions is—yes. In thrilling fashion, he takes us from Homer to Darwin, from Yale to the Amazon, from how to name the rainbow to why Russian water—a “she”—becomes a “he” once you dip a tea bag into her, demonstrating that language does in fact reflect culture in ways that are anything but trivial. Audacious, delightful, and field-changing, Through the Language Glass is a classic of intellectual discovery.

Of course, I haven’t read it yet, but I’m looking forward to posting a review. There is an adaptation from an excerpt posted as an article online: “Does Your Language Shape How You Think?”. It’ll be interesting to see Deutscher’s take on the classic debate. Can’t wait.

‘dejhu: to have the age

Sunday, August 29th, 2010

Example: Xe’tari ‘dejhu asty’het xike jo.
(1S-begin (INF)have.age year twenty eight.)
I started being 28 years old.

Yes, it’s “Oh shit, another year older” day for me. I am now 28* years old. I remember the time when 386 computers were considered fast. I used computers without Windows but with MS DOS. I remember when Das Modul was popular and when Scooter was still considered to be a one hit wonder. When I was young, Germany still was/were two states…

Before I fall into tirades about how life sucks now compares to earlier and crank up the nostalgia, I should just tell that dejhu’tan means age and stop posting. :p But I should mention first that there ware now 222** comments on this blog, which is a funny number.

*Or in Toki Pona: tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu ;)

** in Rejistanian that number is xiry xike xi. Insert Toki Pona joke here.

Babel Labelled

Sunday, August 29th, 2010

Túhúáti: Boá. I have here the gloss for the Babel transcritiption. I have tried to be as consistent as I could, but I fear I may have goofed in a few places – but it should still be fine. I’ve fixed one or two errors I found. But, all in all, this should be a fairly good gloss. I’ll go through it and point out some fun stuff.

  • 1 Now the whole world had one language and a common speech.
  • 1. Dodhéna bo ia á llevóda ram ó dolleva hóni ro dáoíyúmiones.
  • 1. world(subj) begin whole the(hypothetical) language(predicate) one and speech(predicate) common attribution is-progressive-durative-stative-sg..

Well, this is pretty standard. Here you see ó used as a coordinator between two predicates. Also, note the ridiculous amount of useful information found in the verb.

  • 2 As men moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there.
  • 2. Abétuá as llára póanôráwaïnakéon. Bho gum Shinar fo horówon. Súmówohowon.
  • 2. east-toward now man-pl. move-intransitive-imperfective-continuative-seriative-pl.. (they(subject)) plain(object) then Shinar in find-perfective-pl.. (they) settle-perfective-transitional-pl..

Note the subject dropping, as well as the repeated aspectual infixes. They can either be dropped where possible or repeated: neither is more correct, and variation among discourse varies.

  • 3 They said to each other, “Come, let’s make bricks and bake them thoroughly.” They used brick instead of stone, and tar for mortar.
  • 3. Rúntátuá gum frótáon pó tûn wuá odháon! Tûn as gona aíu oák ó híkti nátoríyétéíktion. Rrí gon thon nefá radon ó soronu dalúna üç dáo.
  • 3. he(4p.)-pl.-reflexive(subject) then say-imperfective-pl. indirect.speech we(truncated)(subject) hortative come-imperfective-pl.!  we(trnc.)(subj.) now brick-pl.(object) topic make and thoroughly bake-progressive-distributive-terminal-pl.. so (they)(subject.) brick(object) stone instead.of use-pl. and tar mortar for(instrumental) is.

So, here we see the reflexive =tuá again. More interesting, we see used as an indicator for reported or indirect speech. Some fun aspects in there, as well.

  • 4 Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city, with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may make a name for ourselves and not be scattered over the face of the whole earth.”
  • 4. Rûn gum frótáon pó wuá odhon! Tûn túntátuá ásh góré gôr kúna kûn rrhískats li ro hewnashî dáoshî weïnáyaïnon, ró ken túnátuá ásh oákówon ó nuçhllára yowúll dodhéna ia kyu na rodaowó.
  • 4. they(4p. trnc.)(subj.) then say-impf.-pl. indirect.speech hortative (we)(subj.) come-pl.! we(trunc.) we(trnc.)-pl.-rflx. for(purpose) city relative.clause tower heaven towards attire. reach-subordinate is-sub. build-impf.-cont.-pl., so.that(purpose) name we(trnc.)-pl.-rflx.- for(purpose) make-perf.-pl. and scattered(trnc.)-man-pl. face earth whole genitive over negation-is-perf.

Here we see a purpose postpositional clause indicated by the post-position ásh. Note also the nested relative clauses – with the three verb ending. Pretty standard. Three is the limit to nested clauses, pretty much. We see another sort of purpose clause indicated with ró. We can also see here a participial usage or scattered.

  • 5 But the LORD came down to see the city and the tower that the men were building.
  • 5. Bó Ngádhol á ‘ünskóes. Kuná kûn ó góré gôr llára weïníyétéîsh á adaní óawáún.
  • 5. but Lord the descend-perf.-sg.. tower and city man-pl. make-prog.-dist.-subord. the want(modal verb) see-impf.-infinitive.

Note the use of and here it’s cutting in between a shared relative clause. This is how you do relative clauses for multiple nouns: reduplicate each one, and use ó. Also, this is a good example of a modal verb – adaní.

  • 6 The LORD said, “If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them.
  • 6. Ngádhol á kla frótóes pó dínta ô rúnódan ram dáo. Ki ô llevoda dásh frótéllon. Fáu fén fuó dawáódaícúon, fái hui rrodu dû ovawáon dashîún goy hwéi ók daóún.
  • 6. Lord the then say-perf.-sing ind.sp. they( generic.mood people one is. also gen.m. language same speak-iterative-pl.. if as this(abstract) act-impf.-diversative-inceptive-pl., then definite no-thing plan-impf.-pl. do-subord.-inf. able future deduced.information do-perf.-inf..

Here we have three sentences for what would be one. That’s because temporal dependent clauses do not exist, and must be stated in another way. This is that way. Note the use of subordinate -shi with -ún. That last sentence is an awesome sentence, in my opinion.

  • 7 Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other.”
  • 7. As da odhas. Tûn wúa ‘ünská ó llevoda dîn kyu peshiló oho dîn díntátuá royënówon.
  • 7. now imperative come-moment. We(trnc.) hort. descend-impf. and language they(trnc.) genitive confuse-perf. so.that(resultative) they(trnc.) they-refl. neg.-understand-perf.-pl..

Here we have a post-positional particle, now, being forced into primary position by the post-positional mood marker da. Mood always outranks other particles in placement.

  • 8 So the LORD scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the city.
  • 8. Rrí Ngádhol á rûn nuçhfinâróes kópa muc dodhéna ia na, ó rûn góré á kúp weïníyún.
  • 8. so Lord the they(4p. trnc.) scatter-transitive-perf.-sg. there from world whole over, and they(4p. trnc.) city the stop build-prog.-inf.

Not very nice of the Lord, is it? Truncation for pronouns happens all over the shop, as you might recall and notice. Another modal verb there.

  • 9 That is why it was called Babel — because there the LORD confused the language of the whole world. From there the LORD scattered them over the face of the whole earth.
  • 9. Fá thó Peshil ken góré kyu dáo. Kópa hóra Ngádhol á llevoda á dodhéna ia á kyu peshilóes. Ngádhol bóúkti á rûn kópa muc yowúll á dodhéna ia kyu nuçhfinâróasúkties.
  • 9. that(abstract) reason Confuse name city genitive is. there because Lord the language the world entire the genitive confuse-perf.-sg.. Lord end.of.story(share.information-terminative) the them(trnc.) there from face the world entire genitive scatter-transitive-perf.-moment.-term.-sg..

Here we have the first usage of bóúkti, which is kind of the opposite of . That last verb is just perfect.

And I hope you all enjoyed that. Sorry to make such a big post.

As ways of consolation, why don’t you listen to my second attempt at singing my song? I used a different sort of tonal music scale – a change from low to high or high to low changes tone, but not a change from low to low or high to high. This results in some much prettier music. Same lyrics as before.



Sitting on a few dozen words. Vocabulary making is very hard. I had coined the word dirsht for awesome, but my coworkers thought that was crap. Just goes to show how we don’t like admitting that sounds are random. Now using drogá. I am almost done – five days to go. And I’m quite happy, really. I really need to get cracking on that vocabulary, though. Oh, there was a good post today in Rejistania about what a conlang needs to have.


Sunday, August 29th, 2010

Glyph of the word 'kupiki'.


  • (v.) to wait
  • (adj.) waiting
  • (n.) waiting

Kupiki ei ae panakatá fiti…
“I’m waiting in my cold cell…”

Notes: Yesterday’s song may be the song that epitomizes Iron Maiden, but this song, I think, is their best work ever. Here it is, my number 1 Iron Maiden song:

Number 1
“Hallowed Be Thy Name”

Iron Maiden's single for 'Hallowed Be Thy Name'

The Number of the Beast (1982)

“Hallowed Be Thy Name” is a well-constructed, and well-executed short story in song form. It’s a story about a guy who’s being executed (hanged) for some crime (or crimes). The content of the song is the condemned man’s internal monologue as he reflects upon his life and his predicament. As his final moments draw nearer, the tempo of the music increases, to match his level of desperation. At its height, the prisoner is hanged, and Bruce Dickinson wails out his final words, “Hallowed be thy name.”

In addition to being a well-written song, it’s an excellent performance piece, with the character of the music matching the mood and theme of the lyrical content. It’s something bordering on the theatric, but in a metal—almost operatic—way. It’s about more than just the music: It’s about the experience—about capturing it and communicating it to an audience through music. That, in effect, is what metal’s all about, and this is one of the best metal songs ever written.

There you have it! Thanks for indulging me. I’ve been meaning to write up my top ten Iron Maiden songs somewhere somehow for quite awhile. The Kamakawi Word of the Day is a strange venue for such a thing, but it’s done now: It can’t be undone! Hooray! :D

You may notice that today’s word has been derived from kupi, which means “to sit”. Just hearing it, one might think it was the applicative form of kupi, but not so. The applicative would be more to say something like, “I sit the chair”, meaning “I sit on the chair”, but where “chair” becomes the direct object. This is a metaphorical extension of “sit”. The word focuses on the action one undertakes while waiting for someone—and sitting seems more likely than anything else. So “I sat because of you” would be an overliteral translation of Ka kupiki ei ti ia.

Thanks again for sitting through my top ten favorite Iron Maiden songs! I’m glad they made it up somewhere.

(By the way, the new album is good, but had no single song good enough to knock any of these out of the top ten.)

Concluding Second Dialogue

Saturday, August 28th, 2010
Nena riaknia tí dakil úwidant, kodin?

Sha shim odakilion

Bodú wol tai úwed nena riaknia duen

Yao reb mapena melion úwidant kembí

In the first sentence lady student asks National language is easy to learn, isn't it? The new word is dakil which is used here to mean 'easy'. It turns out the verb úwidant, to get to know, is also used for to learn or to teach. Convenient!

Teacher says Not too difficult. The phrase he uses literally translates as All not un-easy-very. Dakil is the same word used in the above sentence.

Lady student says I want to learn national language well. The desiderative particle tai is used to join 'want' and 'learn', and the second verb takes the same tense as the first rather than become a verbal noun. So it literally means I want that (I) learn...

Teacher vows to teach her well. He uses a bit of hyperbole here. The sort of language that it is. He says I strive most well to teach you. As a teacher he uses the yao-form of the first verb. The superlative mapena is used before the comparative adjective of 'good' to make it 'best'.

That is the end of the Second Dialogue and it will go on Frathwiki soon.

Occasional Word in Merechi: càshi

Saturday, August 28th, 2010
càshi  ['CASHI ] ['kwaSi] adj. wet on its surface, dripping.

Today's word completes the quartet of dry/wet adjectives. càshi means wet to the touch, dripping wet, regardless of internal moisture content or humidity. Rain itself is càshi, and the surfaces of things rained on, but rain also makes things síri, which they continue to be after the raindrops dry up and the world is kàli again.

Next time we'll start on the cooking and food words!



büràiahla sinítnö, enëtív clinípi ki'càshisöp'n, ní clilíri ki'sírisöp'n: After it rains, things will be briefly wet but remain humid (or hydrated) long.


nèfri càshi ka'týraisöp'n: The/a wet cat is not happy.

What should a conlang grammar have?

Saturday, August 28th, 2010

I am going to refer to IRC once again and try to give a good general answer:

( bornfor) I tried asking in here a while back what the grammar-type thing I have
up on my site is lacking, and got little help :p

I am not quite sure how to answer this easily. It does depend on what you want to do with your language. A naming language needs very little in terms of grammar. A real language which can be used in the real world needs more. So allow me just to write a set of questions which should be answered by the conlanger. Sometimes, the answer is that a feature is lacking. Take the sentence “She has eaten the cookie” and “He ate the biscuit”. Rejistanian translates both of them exactly alike (mi’la’ovik isisuvara’het). English obviously does not. OTOH, the sentence “mi’la’meshi’ovik isisuvara’het” and “mi’la’mesit’ovik isisuvara’het” mean something different even though their difference canot be expressed easily in English (the first indicates that s/he possibly ate the cookie/biscuit the second one indicates the same but also that the speaker cannot estimate how likely it is).

  1. What is the word order? Can it change?
  2. What is the morphosyntactic alignment?
  3. How do you say simple sentences?
  4. How do you decline nouns? (and would you ever decline ‘beer’? ;) )
  5. Make it your conlang: Add pronouns and possession.
  6. How do adjectives work? How do adverbs work easily?
  7. It would be better and less cumbersome if your language had comparisons.
  8. How does negation work?
  9. How did I use tenses? How can I start to be using aspects?
  10. What about a trip to the world of articles?
  11. This conlang has this demonstrative and maybe that one as well, so document that (thanks, xvedejas for suggesting this)
  12. How do questions work? Do yes/no questions work? How can you ask for something more complex? Which question words exist?
  13. Relative clauses and subclauses, which both lurk in other sentences, need to be described
  14. What if you mentioned the irrealis and all the other moods?
  15. Make your conlang count (ie: add numbers) and be the first to use ordinal numbers in your conlang
  16. Regarding all the things you inserted to purposefully deviate from your European natlang. I’ll just assume you’d document that anyways…

EDIT: BTW: If you know what you are doing, this list cannot help much. This is just something, which I think someone reading about a language would ask about first. Just going by this list makes the language very euroclone-ish, which Twey very correctly criticized. On the question whether the lack of certain features should be documented, Twey and me disagreed: Twey considers this unneccessary since documented or not, the speakers have to find other ways to express their thoughts.

EDIT2: Of course, if you want anything more detailled as a structure, the one of CALS exists, but might for a newbie appear too scary.