Archive for April, 2011

Omi

Thursday, April 28th, 2011

Glyph of the word 'omi'.

omi

  • (n.) macadamia nut

Oku havava ei iu omi.
“I don’t like macadamia nuts.”

Notes: Or any kind of nuts (except for Grape Nuts). It’s true. I’m also allergic to them. I don’t think that has anything to do with it, though. I was exposed to nuts at a very young age—all sorts. They all taste the way a stuffy photo from the 1800s looks. They’re not cool, they’re not juicy, they’re not savory, they’re just…blech. Tree bark.

But, of course, macadamia nuts are the touristy export of Hawai’i. Why, I have no idea. (Probably because they keep well.) Whenever anyone goes to Hawai’i they bring back macadamia nuts. And for some reason on Christmas, everyone gives everyone chocolate-covered macadamia nuts. I do like chocolate, but, I mean, come on: Nuts? Seriously?

So, yeah, I’m not a big fan. This is kind of a slanty iku. It’s all right, I guess.

lānnāl

Thursday, April 28th, 2011

laannaal

lānnāl

We’re still on the fifteenth sentence of the 14th Conlang Relay Text:

sennete jālneha il jaliþa il lānnāl tēna ī;

and the next unblogged word we encounter lānnāl, which is a defective noun meaning “tomorrow”. It is always preceded by il since it is a time word. Here it is also modified by tēna which modifies sets and means “all”, and then comes the modifier ī, which means “also”.

“We give them (the couple) good fortune today and all tomorrows also.”

The last sentence tomorrow!

Heli

Thursday, April 28th, 2011

Glyph of the word 'heli'.

heli

  • (n.) strawberry
  • (n.) slang term

Ka fi’ea ei i amo! Kau ala heli i eika!
“I forgot! We have strawberries!”

Notes: And that’s the truth. We’ve got a bunch of strawberries. Downstairs. Right now!

I’m a capable human being. I know how best to make use of this information on a hot evening like this one.

The iku for heli was one I changed. Originally it had a narrower “v”, but I changed it to give it the same shape as the “v” in keva which is used in a number of glyphs. For the most part, I’ve moved towards reusing pieces of glyphs where possible, to give the orthography more of a unifying aesthetic.

A system of pronouns

Wednesday, April 27th, 2011
In response to a request from [info]nyxelestia, here's the full Ongul pronominal system.

Ongul pronouns exhibit three persons and four classes: male human, female human, animal, and inanimate/abstract. The plural forms are simple reduplications of the singular forms, so l1a "I, me (male or female human)", l1al1a "we, us (male and/or female humans)".

Male human Female human Animal Other
1st person l1a ma
2nd person, neutral θ2a ð2a l2a
2nd person, respectful θ2al2 ð2al2 l2al2 ŋal2
2nd person, endearing ta da na
2nd person, ritual ɣwə ɣa θ2ə
2nd person, romantic θ1ja
2nd person, dismissive ɣə
2nd person, punitive ŋə
3rd person, neutral a a ~ va ŋa
3rd person, respectful al2 val2 ŋal2
3rd person, endearing tja dja l2ja
3rd person, ritual ɣwəθ1 ɣwəv maŋ θ2əŋ
3rd person, dismissive ŋaɣ
3rd person, punitive ka ga ɰa


Most of these are pretty self-explanatory. The dismissive pronouns are used when you're talking down to someone, or meaning to imply that they are wasting your time. The punitive pronouns are used when you're reprimanding or punishing someone for something. The ritual pronouns are used in prayer and in ceremonies.

The gaps are mostly pretty logical, as well. There's no such thing as an endearing pronoun for inanimate/abstract nouns, and similarly there's no romantic pronoun for animals or inanimate/abstract nouns, both for obvious reasons. The first- and second-person pronouns of the inanimate/abstract class tend only to be used in folk tales involving anthropomorphised inanimate objects, and are quite rare otherwise, with the exception of the second-person ritual inanimate/abstract pronoun; it's not uncommon to directly address inanimate objects during Ongul ritual or ceremonial procedures. There's also no set of romantic pronouns in the third person, since in Ongul society romantic love is considered to be a feeling exclusive to the people involved and so is fairly private; to refer to a romantic partner in the third person when talking about them with someone else, the endearing pronouns are used instead.

I'll talk soon about the closed class of verbs in Ongul - I could use some advice on whether a language with only six verbs can actually work!

jaliþa

Wednesday, April 27th, 2011

jalitha

jaliþa

We’re still on the fifteenth sentence of the 14th Conlang Relay Text:

sennete jālneha il jaliþa il lānnāl tēna ī;

and the next unblogged word we encounter jaliþa, which means “today”. It is generally always preceded by il since it is a time word:

“We give them (the couple) good fortune today…”

High Eolic word of the day: simím

Wednesday, April 27th, 2011

simím (noun): shy, timid.

racát civa simímb-es Eválund-úrturvem lecá máca musanderc nindár
enemy become.COMPL timid-ESS Eoleon-mighty.GEN.DEF so.that they vanquish.PASS simple.GEN
“the might of Eoleon makes [its] enemies timid, and thus [it] can crush [them] easily”

Another phonology

Tuesday, April 26th, 2011

This is a phonology I thought up last night, intended for a close-to-monosyllabic isolating language I’m thinking about making. The consonants are shown below:


There are five simple vowels: /i e a u o/ which may occur short or long. The high vowels /i u/ may occur as glides, yielding both rising and falling diphthongs, as well as triphthongs. These are shown below:


The glides /i u/ are spelled <j> and <w> after a vowel and word initially, respectively.

All morphemes are mono- or bisyllabic. Monosyllables have the form V, VC, CV, or CVC where C is a consonant and V is a vowel or diphthong or triphthong. The initial C slot may be filled by any consonant, though there are some restrictions based on the following V. The labial fricative /f/ may only precede a rounded vowel or glide [u̯]. Before glide [i̯], the sibilant fricatives have all palatalized historically, leaving only /tɕ dʑ ɕ ʑ/. This does not occur before vowel [i].

Codas are much more restricted: only /h t k n ŋ/ occur. The voiceless finals /h t k/ only occur after the short vowels and rising diphthongs. The nasal finals may occur after the short, long, and rising diphthongs. The falling diphthongs and triphthongs only occur in open syllables. The glottal fricative does not surface as an actual coda, but instead lowers the tone of the preceding syllable nucleus. This is written as a grave over the vowel: kiè ‘room’ is /kieh/ [ki̯e˨].

Bisyllabic words consist of a main syllable of the form CV or CVC (limited by the above form rules) and a presyllable of the form (C)V(h, N), where C and V are both extremely limited. Only three underlying vowels occur in presyllables: /e u a/. These are realized [ɛ ʉ a], respectively, except before main syllables containing [i] or on-glide [i̯], in which case /u/ > [ɨ]. Presyllables may be open or begin in a consonant from the following set: /p t k s h m n l/. Presyllables may be open or closed by /h/ or a placeless nasal /N/. After open presyllables, all initials occur. After /h/, an obstruent must be voiceless. After a nasal presyllable obstruents must be voiced or /h/. The nasal assimilates to the following place of articulation.


Another phonology

Tuesday, April 26th, 2011

This is a phonology I thought up last night, intended for a close-to-monosyllabic isolating language I’m thinking about making. The consonants are shown below:


There are five simple vowels: /i e a u o/ which may occur short or long. The high vowels /i u/ may occur as glides, yielding both rising and falling diphthongs, as well as triphthongs. These are shown below:


The glides /i u/ are spelled <j> and <w> after a vowel and word initially, respectively.

All morphemes are mono- or bisyllabic. Monosyllables have the form V, VC, CV, or CVC where C is a consonant and V is a vowel or diphthong or triphthong. The initial C slot may be filled by any consonant, though there are some restrictions based on the following V. The labial fricative /f/ may only precede a rounded vowel or glide [u̯]. Before glide [i̯], the sibilant fricatives have all palatalized historically, leaving only /tɕ dʑ ɕ ʑ/. This does not occur before vowel [i].

Codas are much more restricted: only /h t k n ŋ/ occur. The voiceless finals /h t k/ only occur after the short vowels and rising diphthongs. The nasal finals may occur after the short, long, and rising diphthongs. The falling diphthongs and triphthongs only occur in open syllables. The glottal fricative does not surface as an actual coda, but instead lowers the tone of the preceding syllable nucleus. This is written as a grave over the vowel: kiè ‘room’ is /kieh/ [ki̯e˨].

Bisyllabic words consist of a main syllable of the form CV or CVC (limited by the above form rules) and a presyllable of the form (C)V(h, N), where C and V are both extremely limited. Only three underlying vowels occur in presyllables: /e u a/. These are realized [ɛ ʉ a], respectively, except before main syllables containing [i] or on-glide [i̯], in which case /u/ > [ɨ]. Presyllables may be open or begin in a consonant from the following set: /p t k s h m n l/. Presyllables may be open or closed by /h/ or a placeless nasal /N/. After open presyllables, all initials occur. After /h/, an obstruent must be voiceless. After a nasal presyllable obstruents must be voiced or /h/. The nasal assimilates to the following place of articulation.


to be (to stay) is elga (revisited)

Tuesday, April 26th, 2011
elgaelga = to be (verb "to be/to stay" - to be - infinitive) (some things Google found for "elga": a common term; an uncommon feminine first name related to the name Helga; ELGA Credit Union in Michigan; ELGA LabWater water purification systems; an uncommon last name; "Mucho Mungo / Mt. Elga" is a song by Harry Nilsson co-written with John Lennon)

Word derivation for "to be/to stay":
Basque = egon, Finnish = olla
Miresua = elga

This is the verb, the infinitive form of the verb "to be/to stay". The verb elga, like the Basque verb egon, is used for more temporary states of being, such as "I am in the house". Usage will be similar to the Spanish verb estar. Previously this Miresua word was algo. I changed this word to start with E, to be like most conjugations.

Heva

Tuesday, April 26th, 2011

Glyph of the word 'heva'.

heva

  • (adj.) gray
  • (v.) to be gray
  • (adj.) foggy
  • (n.) fog

Fuilaila heva ono te heva.
“Gray sky over a gray roof.”

Notes: Another picture from the Huntington:

A nice building at the Huntington.

I like the stone tiles on the ground. It reminds me of The Village.

A while back I did on a post on another sense of the word heva. That was the sense without the line determinative. This one has it, and can be considered the “original” sense. The idea of “gray” derived initially from the word for “fog”. Since then, it’s all but taken over as the primary meaning.

The iku itself derives from the iku for kawi, “cloud”. The iku for heva comprises two kawi glyphs, one right on top of the other. Over time, the line in the middle of each glyph dropped out.

You may also notice the aberrant ordering of the glyphs (i.e. it might seem like they should be pointing the other direction). This goes back to the days when Kamakawi was written in many different directions: bottom-to-top, top-to-bottom, left-to-right and right-to-left. Now bottom-to-top and left-to-right are the most common directions (in that order), but the iku for heva was fossilized by writers who wrote from right-to-left. And now it’s stuck that way. :)