Archive for May, 2013

Tȳni Trēsi

Monday, May 20th, 2013

Didn’t I tell y’all there would be some Dothraki this season? Ta da! There it is!

If I may come to things out of order, I thought the VFX of the White Walker dying were outstanding. Must be pretty satisfying to stab something and then have it turn to ice, fall and shatter that way. Pretty cool! Of course, Sam should’ve retained his knife (what was he so afraid of? He killed it! No way you can come back from that!), but the action north of the wall has been replete with horror movie tropes, so it is fitting. For those who remember the specific action of the book better than I do, though, what was up with those birds?! I don’t remember that from the book. And why would they have been so excited about this encounter as to opposed to the others that we’ve seen in the series already? There were no crows in those scenes (or, at least, no literal crows). Oh, and one more question: Isn’t it a bit of a coincidence that that White Walker is the exact same White Walker we saw in the season 2 finale?

I thought the scenes surrounding and during Tyrion and Sansa’s wedding were done very well. Reading those scenes initially, it was so frustrating how much Tyrion wants to convey to Sansa that he’s not a bad guy, and how miserably he fails to do so. I thought they captured that aspect of the books quite well in the scenes we saw here.

There has been a bit of controversy in some corners regarding the scenes on Dragonstone. I would like to go on record saying I thought they were fine. I have no complaints, and found everything to be in keeping with what ought to have been expected.

In today’s scene from Slaver’s Bay, we’re introduced to Daario Naharis, who looks nothing like I thought he would. You know who does look cool, though: Prendahl na Ghezn (played by Ramon Tikaram). Dude looks awesome! He’s even got the blue hair! (If there was any glare on your screen, you might not have noticed it, but his hair was dyed blue, I can assure you.) Alas, his role is a bit short-lived… It’s too bad. Honestly, I hope I see more of him in some other feature. He looks like a leading man, to me.

The main scene begins with Mero leading Prendahl and Daario into Dany’s tent. There is an exchange where Mero is even more insulting than Kraznys, and he provokes the incredible, invincible and indomitable Jacob Anderson, a.k.a Grey Worm, a.k.a Torgo Nudho, who says:

  • Nya dare, beza unehtelas jaa engo ozy?
  • “My queen, shall this one slice out his tongue for you?”

And for those keeping track, yes, that is a Dothraki-style hiatus there with jaa, in addition to Dothraki-style post-vocalic h in unehtelas, both of which he nails, because Jacob Anderson is a Golden God.

Anyway, Dany responds in High Valyrian:

  • Bisi vali īlvyz zentyssy issi.
  • “These men are our guests.”

The word vali was cut due to length, I’m guessing, but the result would still be grammatical (it would just mean “These ones [probably animate] are our guests”). If the form of the possessive adjective looks odd to you, then you’re really keyed in to the phonology of High Valyrian. As I mentioned somewhere at some point in time, adjectives in High Valyrian have a different form depending on whether they come before or after the noun they modify. In this case, the full form would be īlvyzy. The final y drops out if the adjective precedes the noun it modifies, though, and the z devoices unless the next word begins with a voiced sound. Since “guests” is zentyssy, then, the form of the adjective is īlvyz and not īlvys.

After many more insults and a scene between the three Second Sons, we see Missandei bathing Daenerys. Though this scene was, of course, planned, this bit of dialogue was added by Dan Weiss very late in the game (he asked for the translation in mid-September). Personally I think it’s kind of a meta joke since this is literally the only Dothraki that appears in the entire season. What he did was he gave me the English line and asked if I could get athjahakar (the Dothraki word for “pride”) at the end of the sentence. Ultimately this is how I did the translation:

  • Zhey Drogo ast me-Dothraki thasho h’anhaan ven anha ray yol mehas. Me azh maan atjakhar.
  • “Drogo said I spoke Dothraki like one born to it. It gave him great pride.”

Those who know Dothraki will note that this line features the (somewhat) rare invocative use of zhey (i.e. bringing to the listener’s attention a person who hasn’t yet appeared as a topic of discussion). You’ll also note that athjahakar is misspelled. Indeed, this little exchange was supposed to reveal that Dany was never as good at Dothraki as she is, of course, with High Valyrian or Common. And the specific word is a call-back to episode 103, I think it was, where Dany’s handmaiden Jiqui (or Zhikwi) Irri is shown teaching Dany Dothraki by teaching her to say the word athjahakar.

Looking at the above Dothraki line, you’ll note that Dany mangles it pretty badly. That was the intention, but personally I think Emilia went a little too far. Neither Dany nor Emilia was ever that bad! Of course, if Dany hasn’t really been speaking Dothraki much, I can see her getting out of practice (perhaps Jorah is the only one that speaks to the Dothraki now [or, actually, now Missandei can too]). She puts together a rather grammatically complex sentence, though. Pretty impressive for a second language learner!

Second Sons was a little light on language, so to add some girth to this, here’s the full declension for vala, the High Valyrian word for “man”:

Case Singular Plural Paucal Collective
Nominative vala vali valun valar
Accusative vale valī valuni valari
Genitive valo valoti valuno valaro
Dative valot valoti valunta valarta
Locative valā valoti valunna valarra
Instrumental valosa valossi valussa valarza
Comitative valoma valommi valumma valarma
Vocative valus valis valussa valarza

Oh, also I wanted to mention that the word for “son” from our title comes from Twitter user @Tracee2ez, who was my 3,000th Twitter follower! The word is trēsy, which is nicely symmetrical with the word for “daughter”, which is tala. Both are lunar words, but tala is first declension, and trēsy second. There are a number of dualities that work this way, where two words which are intended to be in some sort of semantic relation to one another differ either solely in declension class or gender, but in systematic (or semi-systematic) ways. This word, then, turned out to be quite the fortuitous coining, since I already had the word for “daughter”.

Also, for those in the Bay Area, I will be at BayCon this Sunday. If you’re in the area, stop by and say M’ath!

Oh, and one more also (consider this a public service announcement): The penultimate episode of this season of Game of Thrones will not be airing a week from yesterday! I guess due to a ratings slump on Memorial Day, HBO is skipping a week, and episode 309 will air on June 2nd. Perhaps I can put together a post next week trying to answer some questions. Or I can take a break and enjoy the weekend. We’ll see.

Fonas chek!

Announcement: Going on Hiatus

Monday, May 20th, 2013
We’ll be back mid-to-late June.

Announcement: Going on Hiatus

Monday, May 20th, 2013
We’ll be back mid-to-late June.


Sunday, May 19th, 2013

Let’s have a word of the day from Tmaśareʔ:

cona (v.) ‘promise, swear, vow’

Natohnęʔ kwe na conapǫkse otweʔną hąse enętaʔi yaśe.
na-tohną-eʔ kwe na-Ø cona-pǫ-kse otweʔną hąse-Ø eni-ɴta-ʔi yaśe-Ø
1SG.POSS-father-ERG but 1SG-ABS promise-SENS-3>3.VII next_year horse-ABS be_equipped_with-1SG>3.II-IRR PROX.VII.SG-ABS
“But my father has promised me that I will get a horse next year!”

cona is a ditransitive verb with three mandatory arguments, which has the interesting implication that you cannot simply say that you promise something, but you always have to say who you’re promising it to.

The word also has a fascinating etymology: It is ultimately derived from the Proto-Western root *dzači ‘say, speak’, extended with the adjectival prefix *dłũ- ‘long’, i.e. ‘say something which will be valid for a long time’. (There’s a precise cognate in Empotleʔá tlonátsé.) After several centuries of sound change, the reflex of this verb had become */tsonatʃi/ – and at that point, people started dropping the last syllable of the stem. Why? Well, a verb like ‘promise’ is very frequently used in the first person with future reference, that is, indicating a self-commitment along with a wish that one may be able to live up to this self-commitment. This wish may very well be made explicit by inflecting the verb for the optative mood, similar to how English speakers might add ‘want’ as in ‘I want to promise you…’. And as it happens, Tmaśareʔ has an optative suffix whose form is exactly the same as the last syllable of the regular reflex of *dłũ-dzači, namely -ći (itself derived from the Proto-Western verb *čiye ‘want’). It is no surprise that some confusion arose, and in the end the /tʃi/ syllable was left off when the verb was used in non-optative circumstances, leading to reanalysis of the stem as just /tsona/.

map is mata

Sunday, May 19th, 2013
mata = map (noun) (some things Google found for "mata": a very common term; an uncommon last name; Mata Hari was the stage name of a Dutch exotic dancer and spy (in Indonesian matahari means sun, literally "eye of the day"); MATA is an acronym for Memphis Area Transit Authority; a unusual to uncommon first name that can be feminine; Mata is a 2006 Kannada movie; means eye in Fijian, Indonesian, Maori, Samoan, Tagalog, Tahitian and Tongan; forms of the verb matar which means to kill in Spanish, Catalan, Galician and Portuguese; in Spanish means bush, shrub; in Swedish means to feed; name of places in Brazil, Portugal, Spain and Iran)

Word derivation for "map" :
Basque = mapa, Finnish = kartta
Miresua = mata

Some Miresua nouns end in A, no getting around it, because the Basque and Finnish words both end in A.

The word maps occurs in paragraph six of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.

window is ileku (revisited)

Wednesday, May 15th, 2013
ileku = window (noun) (some things Google found for "ileku": an uncommon to unusual term; user names; similar Oleku is the title of an apparently popular Afrobeat song by Nigerian rapper Ice Prince; Ileku (or Eleku) is the name of a stream in the Democratic Republic of the Congo)

Word derivation for "window" :
Basque = leiho, Finnish = ikkuna
Miresua = ileku

My previous Miresua word for window was naihe, which was, in my opinion, a peculiar alphabetic scramble.

I checked, the word window does appear in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.

Kaponii ba sandi, utora keei — Sandic dictionary, third edition.

Tuesday, May 14th, 2013
 Well, I'm happy.  I finally got un-lazy for long enough to finish the dictionary!  I'm only a month late in publishing it, but you know what they say- better late than never!  I won't provide a link here, since I'm not really trying to advertise it.  If you go to and search "kaponii ba sandi", it's there.  Isn't that "ba" on the cover just awesome?  I wrote it with water in sand one day when I went to the park.  I love seeing "ba"s out in the wild, so to speak. :)

I'm just happy that I'll have a new edition of the dictionary finally!  Things were so cramped in the old one, and I'm looking forward to free-range work again.    I have to stop sometimes and think about just how fortunate I am to live in 2013, where ordering a printed version of my dictionary is literally as easy as clicking a few buttons on a screen.

I remember when I first started conlanging, that it would take hours and hours to re-copy the dictionary into a fresh book each time.  And because I maintained two separate dictionaries for Sandic (one english-sandic, one sandic-english), of course there were inconsistencies between them.

Nowadays, I spend two days completely reformatting it at my leisure if I should so desire, plug the new words into a spreadsheet, auto-alphabetize (alphabetization was always my bane) and then I'm ready to go!  So easy.  I have no idea why I waited so long to do this!

Now to get cracking on that anthology!

(Oh, also.  There is totally a link on the right-hand side, if you want to look at what the dictionary is like! :D  It's a big pdf (like 200 pages), but everything is there. :) )

The Cross and the Sword, by Evangeline Walton: Analysis

Monday, May 13th, 2013
       People may know that Evangeline Walton is one of my favorite authors.  I set out some time ago to write analyses of the four volumes of the Mabinogion Tetralogy and so far I've succeeded in covering only Prince of Annwn, the First Branch.  Now I've read a book of Walton's that I had missed earlier, The Cross and the Sword, a historical novel that deals with the conflicts between the English and the Norsemen in the 10th and 11th centuries -- events leading up to the reign of the Danish King Knut. It was a tempestuous period, when Christianity was trying to establish itself in the world of Odin-men, feeling its way along a tentative path and not doing such a good job of living up to its own principles. 
       This tale is every bit as powerful as Island of the Mighty, but it's far less well known.  I was puzzled to find a whole slew of 3-star rankings on Goodreads (and even one 2-star) because I can't imagine giving it less than 4 and of course personally I give it 5.  However, I think that's because this isn't an easy book.  People may buy it expecting it to be light bedtime reading or popular entertainment -- airheaded sword-and-sorcery with romanticized, plastic heroes and heroines, simplistic villains, and maybe even knights fighting dragons.  If that's your preference in reading matter, don't bother with this book.
       In fact, it's a dark, meaty tale that requires the reader's full attention.  It's fraught with profound themes, its style is strenuous, and its diction is not easy.  It has enough violence to please the most calloused aficionado of barbaric battle tales, but underlying the brutality is a question:  Why does such violence have to exist?
       One thing that makes reading this book difficult is the names.  There is a plethora of characters and most of their names begin with the letter "E"!  The author had no control over this -- she's writing about real historical figures, and all the English kings and warriors of the period had names like Edmund, Edgar, Edwy, Ethelred, Edric, Edward -- and women ... Edith, Elfgiva, Emma, Elfryth ... well, you get the point.  Then there are the Danes.  There are two different Sweyns -- our protaganist Sweyn Haraldsson and Sweyn Forkbeard, the Danish King -- and at least two different Olafs.   Even the surnames can be confusing --  Sweyn Forkbeard and Harald Firebeard, for example.
      Fortunately, the author provides a genealogical table of the English Kings and also a list of characters at the beginning of each of the three sections of the book.  Prepare to consult these frequently!  This is a surmountable difficulty, however, and shouldn't deter you from relishing the book.
        A second problem the casual reader might encounter is the pithy style.  The dialogue is written in a semi-archaic, slightly formalized style that could be off-putting if you aren't prepared to pay attention.  Personally, I found it highly effective.  I get annoyed at period fiction or high fantasy where the characters talk in 21st-century colloquialisms, and I think by adjusting word order and attending to diction Walton achieves an appropriate archaic effect.  Let me give an example.
       " 'And so he is enraging them by raising up kinless men like this duke Leofsy of Essex?  Stirring up trouble in his own house while I am knocking at the door?'  Forkbeard yawned.  'The more fool he.  When I am King of the English I will love those great lords like brothers until the land is quiet -- then each will find himself a head shorter.'
       " 'Glad I am to have only the love you give a foster-brother, King!'  Palli laughed shortly."  (p. 146 of the Ryerson hardback edition)

       One additional word concerning language, something I generally think about.  The languages being spoken in this book are never discussed -- everyone speaks the same.  Actually, the English have to be speaking Anglo-Saxon and the Norsemen Old Norse or some variation thereof.  I really don't know what lingua franca the Norseman and the English used to communicate during the period of invasion -- surely not Latin -- but Walton chooses not to make it an issue.  I agree with that -- such pedantry would have merely been a distraction from the serious intent of the book.

       So now we get to the heart of the book, its themes and purpose.  It is a study in the Christianity and culture of the time, and to some extent a commentary on the Christianity and culture of today.  But it's also a study in what it means to be human, revealed through the main character and narrator, the Norwegian Sweyn Haraldsson.  Walton took a few terse references from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and weaves a credible fictional tale around these bare-bones remarks, building a fully developed character who fits seamlessly into the larger context.  We follow Sweyn on a quest from his beginnings as the son of Harald Firebeard in a culture of Odin-worship, which could be brutal and violent but which was honest, true to its beliefs, and decent to its own people, if not to others.   We follow him to England where he encounters Christianity and isn't impressed, especially by the doctrine that dooms all men to burn in hell if they don't accept Christ.  The Christianity of the time was fraught with hypocrisy and had not yet learned how to live what it preached.  Sweyn converts (becoming Edwy the Dark) but not with any spiritual conviction -- it is merely that if he wants to marry the woman he has fallen in love with, he has to have been baptized.  We see the results of Christian hypocrisy when some of the few Christians who are sincere in their beliefs in loving and caring for their fellow human beings are brutally murdered in the St. Brice's Day Massacre.  Afterwards, Sweyn becomes Black Thrym, one of the worst marauders and slaughterers of the English, even while hating himself for his own dark deeds.  He sees those deeds as the only means to gain vengeance on the man who perpetrated the massacre.  Ultimately, an act of sacrifice -- the martyrdom of Elfeah -- causes him to experience an almost miraculous revelation of what God is really all about.

       "This man was good, so goodness was.  He was dying as he said his Master had died, to save others.  Such goodness could be.  It was.  No mistake in men's minds, that were too small to understand it, no doctrine, or folly or ugliness, could cloud it.  What were mistakes, or suffering, in the goodness that was eternity?  For eternity must be, because goodness was, and therefore justice must be." (p.281)

       It's interesting to contrast the presentation of Christianity in this book with that in Prince of Annwn.  In both books the consignment to hell of anyone who does not profess faith in the Christian god forms a major discussion point.  But where the treatment of Christianity flounders in Prince of Annwn and keeps being restated as if the author is never quite satisfied with her rendition, the pithy style of The Cross and the Sword serves the subject well.  Frequent striking, almost aphoristic remarks encapsulate the attitude toward Christianity, and character development serves to give the depiction flesh.

       I must say a word about Chapters 10 and 11, which present what has got to be one of the most mesmerizing descriptions of horrific slaughter ever written.  When you read about Evangeline Walton, she seems like such a mannerly, sensitive, kind, and compliant person and yet she was able to write about such visceral violence with only the barest modicum of sentimentality, never pulling any punches.   It's an absolute tour-de-force.  We see the destruction of the characters whom I consider to be the true heroes of the piece, as they live out a brutal affirmation of their beliefs.

       Unfortunately, this book is out-of-print, but maybe that's a good thing.  I have occasional correspondence with Douglas Anderson, the current editor of Evangeline Walton's works (she left a quantity of unpublished manuscripts) and he told me that The Cross and the Sword was hacked up by the publisher, who chopped out whole paragraphs and pages.  The publisher also changed the author's title, substituting this generic phrase The Cross and the Sword that could fit anything from a Roman gladiator tale to a Crusader novel to a story of the Knights Templar.  (Why publishers insist on doing that is beyond me!)  A new edition is in the works and it likely  will appear under the author's chosen title: Dark Runs the Road.  That phrase appears near the end of the book, as part of a cautionary statement:

       "I have nothing to complain of.  I have lived my life; known goodness as well as evil, joy as well as sorrow.  I wish for nothing save that I might have made the world a little better place before I left it.  Such a world as men like Elfeah and Eric might have built.  But it is the Knuts and the Olafs and the Ethelreds who get to be rulers of men.  Dark runs the road ahead of mankind and womankind that are yet to be; dark as it ran before me." (p.300)

       If in its present garbled state this book is still such a treasure, imagine how great it will be when it can be read the way the author intended it!

Gryves se Riña Litse

Monday, May 13th, 2013

Yesterday was George R. R. Martin’s episode for season 3 of Game of Thrones. Many wondered if Martin would write the episode from season 3 (if you don’t know which that is, you will by the end of the season), and in case you didn’t find the information elsewhere, he specifically did not want to. He said it was tough to write once, and he didn’t want to go through that again.

There was quite a bit of character development this episode, which was important, but which, I gather from the internet, might have seemed not as exciting to some. Not every episode can have wall-to-wall action (though I would note that the dragons were quite entertaining this episode!), but I really liked some of the conversations and developments from this episode. For example, a short scene, but the conversation between Sansa and Margaery was great (“Yes, dear. My mother taught me.” Rolling). Tywin’s little lecture to Joffrey was priceless, of course. It was also nice to see some vulnerability and passion from Melisandre (something we see in the books, albeit later on).

I would also like to draw a comparison that I don’t believe anyone else has ever drawn. In fact, if someone has drawn this comparison already and you can show me the link, I’ll coin a word for you in either Dothraki or High Valyrian (depending on what makes the most sense). Ready for this? Here it is. The rise and fall of Theon Greyjoy (and what will eventually become of that once we get into his book 5 arc) reminds me a lot of Willie Loomis from the original Dark Shadows. The parallels are many. Not that I think George Martin was inspired by the character (they’re not that much alike in the particulars), I just find it to be a fitting comparison. If you have Netflix, I recommend giving the series a try. It’s way over the top, and the effects are terrible. It’s delicious.

(UPDATE: It has been noticed! I wasn’t the first! Check out this post on Tumblr. Props go to Atrox for being the first to point it out!)

There wasn’t a whole lot of Valyrian in this episode, but there was some. It first comes up with Robb and Talisa. Talisa’s writing a letter to her mother and Robb asks her if it’s in Valyrian. There she replies with something I didn’t write, and which Robb repeats as ga (sounded to me like she actually says dha. Anyway have good ears?). I didn’t actually intend for there to be a simple word for “yes” in High Valyrian, but of course there ought to be in Volantene. So whatever it was that was said, let’s say that’s it. Later she says “hello” in Valyrian: rytsas. Robb is then supposed to mispronounce it, but he actually mispronounced it better than I intended (I intended ristas). The vowel change, though, probably sounds amusing enough.

Regarding the letter, the text of it was written by Cat Taylor (Dave and Dan’s assistant) and translated by me. The shot of it is quite pretty; the art department did an awesome job! Ideally it should be in Valyrian glyphs, but I guess it didn’t seem worthwhile to create an entire writing system for what ultimately is kind of a throwaway shot. Though I do have the text of it (in both English and High Valyrian, which is what it’s written in), I don’t think I should put it up right now. I’ll put it up when the season’s done with, but there’s been a lot of creativity amongst fans regarding Talisa, and so I think this should remain a mystery for the time being. It isn’t gibberish, though, I can assure you.

Later in Yunkai we get some more Valyrian from Dany, but none from conlang demigod Jacob Anderson! When I was first doing the scripts, it was like, “Yeah, whatever.” Now, though! They should have him narrate the entire series in Valyrian! What a linguistic adonis!

Anyway, Dany gives some orders to Grey Worm (who does not respond! What a missed opportunity! He could’ve at least said, “By your royal leave, my gracious queen and valorous liberator, of whom the heavens shall sing for a million shining eternities!”). These are they:

  • Va oktio remȳti vale jikās.
  • “Send a man to the city gates.”


  • Belmurtī ivestrās kesir pōnte jiōrinna se pōjon obūljarion mazōrīnna. Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza.
  • “Tell the slavers I will receive them here and accept their surrender. Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.”

And that actually does it.

Oh, except for one thing. When Grazdan mo Eraz wanders away from Dany et al., he mutters something. For this, D&D asked me to just come up with something—anything that sounded particularly vile. And so I came up with this (which I won’t translate):

  • Inkan undagho buna gundjabo jorydrare evi rungo pulgarinko…

I don’t know how much of that he actually gets through (I made it extra long so it would sound like he was trailing off and saying more). That’s Astapori Valyrian, in case you’re wondering; I didn’t have time to do a complete treatment of Yunkish Valyrian just for this line. There’s at least one word in there that could be unique to Yunkai, though.

Also, an important note for regular commenters on this blog. A couple days ago something happened (unfortunately, I still don’t know what) that resulted in one of my blog posts being deleted along with all its comments—plus a dozen or so others. It wasn’t a post I was editing or working on, nor was it the most recent post. The comments, though, were recent comments. I worked with someone to restore an earlier version of the database, and the post is back, along with most of its comments. There are still a number of comments that aren’t back, though. We are working to restore them exactly as they were. Even if that doesn’t work, though, I do have a record of every comment, so at the very least I will be able to restore them myself (likely under my own login, but I’ll give the appropriate credit along with the original post date). I apologize for the mishap—especially since some of the best material on this blog has been in the recent batch of comments. I’d love to say that it won’t happen again, but since I don’t know what caused it and failed to replicate the problem, I just don’t know if I can say that. At the very least, I now know I can restore the blog, and that it appears to be backed up regularly.

Project II: Allophony & Romanisation

Monday, May 13th, 2013

Okay, lets tackle the allophony of Project II. The basic syllable structure was CV(C) where V can be any vowel, including diphthongs. That’s why we get consonant clusters like this: CV(C)CV(C) were two consonants meet. But first, the romanisation. Nothing special there.


Easy. Goes like this.

/f v/ <f v>
/s z/ <s>
/ʃ ʒ/ <z>
/h/ <h>

/p b/ <p b>
/t d/ <t d>
/k g/ <k g>

/n m ɹ l j/ <n m r l j>

/a e i o u/ <a e i o u>
/aː eː iː oː uː/ <aa ee ii oo uu>
/ai ua ei/ <ai ua ei>

Cluster Allophony

Devoicing of Plosives

If two neighbouring plosives differ in voicing, they get devoiced.

Ex.: nupga / –> [nup.ka]

If two plosives from the same PoA meet, the voiced one is deleted entirely.

Ex.: dagka /dag.ka/ –> [da.ka]


Gemination with /h/

When a consonant is followed by /h/, it gets geminated.

Ex.: azha /aʃ.ha/ –> [aʃː.a]


Pre-Vowel Lengthening with /h/

If a vowel is followed by /h/ and another consonant follows, the /h/ drops and the vowel is lengthened.

Ex.: ahza / –> [aː.ba]

When /h/ is preceded by a diphthong, it still drops, but the diphthong is unaffected.


Devoicing of /v z ʒ b d g/ after a Short Vowel

If a voiced obstruent (like those above) is preceded by a short vowel, it gets devoiced.

Ex.: avba / –> []


Single Consonant Allophony

Voicing of (Post-) Alveolar Fricatives

If /s ʃ/ are followed by a long vowel and are in word-initial position, they become /z ʒ/ respectively.

Ex.: saan zaan /faːn saːn ʃaːn/ –> [zaːn ʒaːn]

If /s ʃ/ are in between two vowels, they become voiced.

Ex.: aza /aʃ.a/ –> [aʒ.a]

Diphthong Realisation

The diphthongs /ua ei/ are realised as [ʷa eʲi].


Yeah, that’s that. Nothing extreme yet. I just tried very hard to come up with a allophony. Probably that will change a good bit when I start to write/translate/speak the language.