Archive for September, 2013

Zero Copula

Tuesday, September 24th, 2013

image

In the basic Umu sentence, the subject comes after the predicate.

Tarzan, me. Jane, you.

The predicate is joined to the subject without overt making.

image image
kömu janö
kmu jan
big Jan
Jan is big

image image
tipi kimö
tipi kim

small Kim
Kim is small.

image image
‘ajö ‘ö’u
‘aj wu

horse 3
It is a horse.

image image
tözi ‘ö’u
si wu

woman 3
She is a woman.

image image
‘u’ö ‘ö’u
‘uw wu

young 3
He/she/it is young.

image image
minö ‘öti
min di

rich 2
You are rich.
You have.

image image image
miru ‘öme ‘ezu
míru.wme ‘ezu

name GEN\1 ‘Ezu
My name is ‘Ezu

image image image
tipi jö’a ‘öme
tipi.jwá.wme

small child GEN\1
My child is small.


Tagged: conlang, copula, grammar, pseudoglyphs, umu, zero copula

soruyo wî kapuyo

Monday, September 23rd, 2013
So, a friend introduced me to this song some time ago, and I made the mistake of listening to it again the other day... can you guess what happened?

That's right- I hummed it on and off for about Two days before I decided I was finished!  It was to the point that I was translating it on the fly during my ride home, to no effect.

  Bring in a proper translation into Sandic, and...  Sweet relief!

Behold, probably the first spanish-language song I have ever translated into Sandic.  Original here:  http://youtu.be/TaN1FEiChcw

'La sonora dinamita --sorullo y capullo'

no recording this time, sorry.  Voice, eh.

Order of texts: sandic -- smooth english of sandic

-----


Pa mit me srîtnia
Baxoka wwak makunnia
Historan op éoi baxahl paneco!
Felë ymî aunia
Wî kahami talëlab ân lëian gre kala felë
Ytemî ba raactab.

Ba makun umecin
Oxahl gezon oahl jekra
Jégú geté histor
Op baxahl éoi
Felë ysa, fian
Kémania kaxneot mî
Ân ba jeki histor ba
Baxahl gléni!

Ba kame otiab kaxkre
Ivlún oxahl érain
A ân kian daniab axneot mî
Kiab baxkésa ra
Kaxmeja ân jae atian frn ba sin ka
Ba kaxokai frn ba
Nalëu bal ân lëétesa!

Pé kapuyo opésa
Otiab ivin yse bera
Oahl énjan ta ivin
Wî otiab yse krian méâ me
A frn ba gléni otawwjae
Otawwjae hera

Pé kapuyo opémî
Bal frn me kaahl ba gléni?

Kian rial bal ân axmî
'Pé soruyo opésa
Ba gléni frn pé kaahl... ba trénui!'

Ba kame otiab siad kaxneot kre
Ba kun baxahl ujaui
Ba ame ber geté ae axjard
Pal ka iat baahl ba gléni!

--

Some time in my village
There was a wedding
Their hair was blonde like butter!
I tell the truth,
And to you forever
I will say what is real

From the marriage there were born
Nine children
Of these, eight had blonde hair
I know myself,
No one told me
That the ninth one'one's hair
Was very black

The man supported them
for many years
But that she said nothing
 to him was troubling
He decided to speak to her about his thoughts
And about what happened
You all will now know!

'Understand, kapuyo,
I love them all equally
They are all angels
I love them as much as i can
But we should talk about the black(haired) one,
We should talk calmly."

'Tell me, kapuyo,
Is the black(haired) one my child?'

She said back to him,
'You should know, soruyo,
That the black(haired) one is the only one that is yours!'

The man no longer supported them
The marriage was ended ('torn')
She left with her eight,
And the black(haired child) is still with him!

smaller is nitxiapi

Monday, September 23rd, 2013
smaller = nitxiapi (adjective) (some things Google found for "nitxiapi": an unique term; did not match any documents; somewhat similar Battle of Xiapi was fought in China in the winter of 198 towards the end of the Han Dynasty)

Word derivation for "smaller" :
Basque = txikiago, Finnish = pienempi
Miresua = nitxiapi

For good measure, I decided, to post smaller too. Small is nitxi. The comparative adjective suffix in Miresua is -api.

Alice got uncomfortably large in the White Rabbit's house: "If I eat one of these cakes," she thought, "it's sure to make SOME change in my size; and as it can't possibly make me larger, it must make me smaller, I suppose."

CTS Test Run

Sunday, September 22nd, 2013

This is only a test.

The topic-comment stative is something I made to function as the Umu copula. When both are unmarked, the meaning is “is comment, topic” or using English word order “topic is comment”.

imageimage
hopa köva
hopa.kvá
fat dog
The dog is fat.

Topics can possess comments. This incorporates the comment into the topic, creating a new topic.

Before, I’d always marked the shift on the topic. Like this:

image image
hopa köve
hopá.kve

fat GENdog
The fat dog…

But with my chosen word order—and because the same shift must also mark possessives—this didn’t really work. It didn’t make much sense orthographically either because the shift also changed the stress of the former comment, leaving the reader one step behind.

This time I’ll try marking the comment instead of the topic. The site of the vowel shift and and stress shift is now the same place and meets the readers eye first.

image image
hupe köva
húpe.kva

GENfat dog
The fat dog…

It’s also less ambiguous when the new comment comes into play.

image image image
köpö hupe köva
kőp húpe.kva

black GENfat dog
The fat dog is black.

It seems to work even with multiple comments.

image image image
köpö hupe köva
kɓő.hupe.kva

GENblack GENfat dog
The black fat dog…

image image image image
zö’ö köpö hupe köva
ző kɓő.hupe.kva

pretty GENblack.GENfat.dog
The black fat dog is pretty.

It also seems to work as both the possessor and possessee.

image image image image image
zö’ö ‘ötu köpö hupe köve
zö.wtú kɓő.hupe.kva

pretty.hair GENblack.GENfat.GENdog
The black fat dog’s hair is pretty.

image image image image
köpö hupe köva ‘öme
kőp húpe.kva.wme

black GENfat dog GEN1
My fat dog is black.

image image image image
köpö hopa köva ‘öme
kőp hópa kvá.wme

black fat dog GEN1
My dog is black and fat.

This is as far as I’ve gotten. I’m not sure what happens with more complex noun phrases yet or whether it’s actually viable. But it’s a good start.

And just noticing this now. It looks like shift in this manifestation make verbs adjectives and puts nouns in the genitive. I hadn’t looked at it that way.

What do you think of this new system? Is it solvent?

Oh forgot about compounds. Now that the modifier is marked and not the head, the issue of which part of the compound gets marked our both or “look how long that crazy marked compound is” goes away. They’ll just s it there in this original for.

image image
zimu köva
zímu.kva

forest dog
wolf

image image image image image
hopa köpö zimu köva ‘öti
hópa kɓő.zimu.kva.wti

fat GENblack forest wolf GEN2
Your black wolf is fat.

It may start getting hairy when the compound is in the genitive or when there’s multiple genitives. This may or may not work here.

image image image image image image
hopa kari köpö zimo köve ‘öti
hopa.karí kɓő.zimo.kve.wti
fat baby GENblack GENforest GENwolf GEN2
Your black wolf’s baby cub is fat.

But who knows? Maybe it does work.


Tagged: conlang, genitive, possessive, pseudoglyphs, syntax, Topic-Comment, umu, vowel shift

CTS Test Run

Sunday, September 22nd, 2013

This is only a test.

The topic-comment stative is something I made to function as the Umu copula. When both are unmarked, the meaning is “is comment, topic” or using English word order “topic is comment”.

imageimage
hopa köva
hopa.kvá
fat dog
The dog is fat.

Topics can possess comments. This incorporates the comment into the topic, creating a new topic.

Before, I’d always marked the shift on the topic. Like this:

image image
hopa köve
hopá.kve

fat GEN\dog
The fat dog…

But with my chosen word order—and because the same shift must also mark possessives—this didn’t really work. It didn’t make much sense orthographically either because the shift also changed the stress of the former comment, leaving the reader one step behind.

This time I’ll try marking the comment instead of the topic. The site of the vowel shift and and stress shift is now the same place and meets the readers eye first.

image image
hupe köva
húpe.kva

GEN\fat dog
The fat dog…

It’s also less ambiguous when the new comment comes into play.

image image image
köpö hupe köva
kőp húpe.kva

black GEN\fat dog
The fat dog is black.

It seems to work even with multiple comments.

image image image
köpö hupe köva
kɓő.hupe.kva

GEN\black GEN\fat dog
The black fat dog…

image image image image
zö’ö köpö hupe köva
ző kɓő.hupe.kva

pretty GEN\black.GEN\fat.dog
The black fat dog is pretty.

It also seems to work as both the possessor and possessee.

image image image image image
zö’ö ‘ötu köpö hupe köve
zö.wtú kɓő.hupe.kva

pretty.hair GEN\black.GEN\fat.GEN\dog
The black fat dog’s hair is pretty.

image image image image
köpö hupe köva ‘öme
kőp húpe.kva.wme

black GEN\fat dog GEN\1
My fat dog is black.

image image image image
köpö hopa köva ‘öme
kőp hópa kvá.wme

black fat dog GEN\1
My dog is black and fat.

This is as far as I’ve gotten. I’m not sure what happens with more complex noun phrases yet or whether it’s actually viable. But it’s a good start.

And just noticing this now. It looks like shift in this manifestation make verbs adjectives and puts nouns in the genitive. I hadn’t looked at it that way.

What do you think of this new system? Is it solvent?

Oh forgot about compounds. Now that the modifier is marked and not the head, the issue of which part of the compound gets marked our both or “look how long that crazy marked compound is” goes away. They’ll just s it there in this original for.

image image
zimu köva
zímu.kva

forest dog
wolf

image image image image image
hopa köpö zimu köva ‘öti
hópa kɓő.zimu.kva.wti

fat GEN\black forest wolf GEN\2
Your black wolf is fat.

It may start getting hairy when the compound is in the genitive or when there’s multiple genitives. This may or may not work here.

image image image image image image
hopa kari köpö zimo köve ‘öti
hopa.karí kɓő.zimo.kve.wti
fat baby GEN\black GEN\forest GEN\wolf GEN\2
Your black wolf’s baby cub is fat.

But who knows? Maybe it does work.


Tagged: conlang, genitive, possessive, pseudoglyphs, syntax, Topic-Comment, umu, vowel shift

Back to Basics

Sunday, September 22nd, 2013

Say goodbye to verbal inflections and the predicative/non-predicative vowel shift. Here’s the new (old) game plan.

Vowel Shift & the Genitive

When unpacking the Umu vowel shift, the first use I thought of for it was to have it mark the genitive. I moved away from this because I thought it was too “boring”.

But now, rather than trying to build at outrageously crazy language that I can’t even follow, boring is looking more and more appealing.

So as pedestrian as it may be, this is the route I’m going. There’s plenty of room for craziness in finding other uses for the genitive case.

image
‘öma
wma
• I
• me
• we
• us

image
tetu
• river

image
tözi
si
• woman
image
‘öme
wme
• my
• our



image
tato
• river’s

image
tözi
si
• woman’s


Comment Topic Refined

Umu topics can possess their comments. This concept will be refined. Hopefully afterwards not every word in the noun phrase will be in the genitive, as before, and I’ll iron out what to do with compounds.

Ergative & Absolutive Slots

Alignment has be on of those things I keep farting around with. I’ve come up with this little gem.

The absolutive argument will occupy the slot closest to the verb. The ergative argument holds a slot farther away from the verb. Both slots exist before and after the verb depending on the argument’s definite/indefinite status.

(ERG.INDEF) (ABS.INDEF) (V) (ABS.DEF) (ERG.DEF)

This gets us back to my original ideas on the subject but isn’t as hardcore as “all sole arguments must be patients”. Though working out the who’s transitive and who’s intransitive and valency operations is still to come.

And so we rewind. A bit of a recent trend I’d say.


Tagged: conlang, pseudoglyphs, umu

Back to Basics

Sunday, September 22nd, 2013

Say goodbye to verbal inflections and the predicative/non-predicative vowel shift. Here’s the new (old) game plan.

Vowel Shift & the Genitive

When unpacking the Umu vowel shift, the first use I thought of for it was to have it mark the genitive. I moved away from this because I thought it was too “boring”.

But now, rather than trying to build at outrageously crazy language that I can’t even follow, boring is looking more and more appealing.

So as pedestrian as it may be, this is the route I’m going. There’s plenty of room for craziness in finding other uses for the genitive case.

image
‘öma
wma
• I
• me
• we
• us

image
tetu
• river

image
tözi
si
• woman
image
‘öme
wme
• my
• our



image
tato
• river’s

image
tözi
si
• woman’s


Comment Topic Refined

Umu topics can possess their comments. This concept will be refined. Hopefully afterwards not every word in the noun phrase will be in the genitive, as before, and I’ll iron out what to do with compounds.

Ergative & Absolutive Slots

Alignment has be on of those things I keep farting around with. I’ve come up with this little gem.

The absolutive argument will occupy the slot closest to the verb. The ergative argument holds a slot farther away from the verb. Both slots exist before and after the verb depending on the argument’s definite/indefinite status.

(ERG.INDEF) (ABS.INDEF) (V) (ABS.DEF) (ERG.DEF)

This gets us back to my original ideas on the subject but isn’t as hardcore as “all sole arguments must be patients”. Though working out the who’s transitive and who’s intransitive and valency operations is still to come.

And so we rewind. A bit of a recent trend I’d say.


Tagged: conlang, pseudoglyphs, umu

Back to Basics

Sunday, September 22nd, 2013

Say goodbye to verbal inflections and the predicative/non-predicative vowel shift. Here’s the new (old) game plan.

Vowel Shift & the Genitive

When unpacking the Umu vowel shift, the first use I thought of for it was to have it mark the genitive. I moved away from this because I thought it was too “boring”.

But now, rather than trying to build at outrageously crazy language that I can’t even follow, boring is looking more and more appealing.

So as pedestrian as it may be, this is the route I’m going. There’s plenty of room for craziness in finding other uses for the genitive case.

image
‘öma
wma
• I
• me
• we
• us

image
tetu
• river

image
tözi
si
• woman
image
‘öme
wme
• my
• our



image
tato
• river’s

image
tözi
si
• woman’s

Comment Topic Refined

Umu topics can possess their comments. This concept will be refined. Hopefully afterwards not every word in the noun phrase will be in the genitive, as before, and I’ll iron out what to do with compounds.

And so we rewind. A bit of a recent trend I’d say.


Tagged: conlang, pseudoglyphs, umu

Dārys Se Jaes

Saturday, September 21st, 2013

The King and the God


The King and the God is a short parable created by historical linguists in the 1990s in reconstructed Proto-Indo-European, in a fashion similar to Schleicher's famous fable: The Sheep and the Horses. This new one in particular is loosely based on a passage from the Rigveda, involving a king and the god Varuna. I thought this was such a good candidate to be translated into High Valyrian the language created by David J. Peterson for the HBO Game of Thrones series. It's short, it's concise, the sentences are simple and plain, plus I was excited to notice our current High Valyrian lexicon had almost all the entries to translate the parable.

So I decided to try my hand at it. This is the first final draft of the parable translated into High Valyrian with the invaluable help of my good friend and Editor, Mad Latinist, also responsible for this great blog with his insights and analyses on High Valyrian and Astapori Valyrian. Thanks!

Dārys Se Jaes

Dārys istas.[1][2] Riñosa mijetas.[2] Dārys trēsi jaeliles. "Trēsi yne tepō!"[3][4], zȳhot voktot jeptas.[5] "Rullori jaes rijībās"[6], voktys dārī ivestratas.[7] Dārys va Rullorī istas sesīr jaes rijīptas.[8] "Yne rȳbagās, Āeksios Rulloris!"[9], jaes Rullor hen perzȳ māstas.[10] "Skorion[11] jaelā?". "Trēsi jaelan". "Kesir[12] iksos[4]", jaes Rullor perzo vestras.[13] Dāria dārot trēsi teptas.

English translation of the High Valyrian:

The King and the God

There was a king. He had no child. The king wanted a son. He said to his priest: "Give me a son!". The priest said to the king: "Worship god R'hllor". The king went towards R'hllor and now worshiped the god: "Hear me, Lord R'hllor!", the god R'hllor came from the fire. "What do you want?". "I want a son". The god R'hllor of fire said: "May this be". The queen gave the king a son.

There are some differences to accommodate to the available vocabulary and the change from Varuna/Werunos to R'hllor, the only name of a god given so far. I guess it could also work as an example of the conversion to the R'hllorian cult. I can't resist pointing out that Stannis Baratheon also desires a son in the series. This has been a lot of fun and a good practice for the language which looks really cool, I hope the grammar is correct.

For more information about the fable and to hear an audio file of Andrew Byrd reciting it check: The King and the God parable.

_________________________________
Footnotes:

[1] We have no word for "once" or the construction "there was", not to mention that there could even be a special construction for "there was once..." as in story-telling.
[2] Probably the verb should be in the Imperfect Active, but we don't know the forms for many verbs.
[3] There original has here: "May a son be born to me!", but we have no word for "to be born".
[4] I assumed the subjunctive can here be used as a jussive construction of the type "May-it-be".
[5] Is this the correct usage of the verb? How about the cases?
[6] We don't have a word for "pray" so I had to use the next best thing: worship, a well-attested verb. Is this the correct imperative?
[7] Again, is this the correct usage of the verb? Are the cases correctly used?
[8] Is this the correct form of the Perfect Active?
[9] Replaced "Father Werunos" with "Lord R'hllor" as we have no word for "father" and this seems more appropriate when talking of R'hllor.
[10] We have no word for "heaven", also it seems more likely that the God of Light, R'hllor, should appear from a fire, maybe one used to communicate with him as seen in the series.
[11] Is this the correct form and usage of "skorion" for "what"? We have at least two sentences attested using a form of the root skor-, "Skorion massitas?" 'What happened?', and also "Skoros otāpā?" 'What do you think?'. Although we have some theories about the difference in these two it is still uncertain what each one actually represents, as the sentences seem to share the same structure and role of "what".
[12] Is this the correct term for "this" used as a pronoun "May THIS be done"?
[13] Replaced "bright god" with "god R'hllor of fire", taking "of fire" as a kind of attribute similar to "jelmazmo".

Dārys Se Jaes

Saturday, September 21st, 2013

The King and the God


The King and the God is a short parable created by historical linguists in the 1990s in reconstructed Proto-Indo-European, in a fashion similar to Schleicher's famous fable: The Sheep and the Horses. This new one in particular is loosely based on a passage from the Rigveda, involving a king and the god Varuna. I thought this was such a good candidate to be translated into High Valyrian the language created by David J. Peterson for the HBO Game of Thrones series. It's short, it's concise, the sentences are simple and plain, plus I was excited to notice our current High Valyrian lexicon had almost all the entries to translate the parable.

So I decided to try my hand at it. This is the first final draft of the parable translated into High Valyrian with the invaluable help of my good friend and Editor, Mad Latinist, also responsible for this great blog with his insights and analyses on High Valyrian and Astapori Valyrian. Thanks!

Dārys Se Jaes

Dārys istas.[1][2] Riñosa mijetas.[2] Dārys trēsi jaeliles. "Trēsi yne tepō!"[3][4], zȳhot voktot jeptas.[5] "Rullori jaes rijībās"[6], voktys dārī ivestratas.[7] Dārys va Rullorī istas sesīr jaes rijīptas.[8] "Yne rȳbagās, Āeksios Rulloris!"[9], jaes Rullor hen perzȳ māstas.[10] "Skorion[11] jaelā?". "Trēsi jaelan". "Kesir[12] iksos[4]", jaes Rullor perzo vestras.[13] Dāria dārot trēsi teptas.

English translation of the High Valyrian:

The King and the God

There was a king. He had no child. The king wanted a son. He said to his priest: "Give me a son!". The priest said to the king: "Worship god R'hllor". The king went towards R'hllor and now worshiped the god: "Hear me, Lord R'hllor!", the god R'hllor came from the fire. "What do you want?". "I want a son". The god R'hllor of fire said: "May this be". The queen gave the king a son.

There are some differences to accommodate to the available vocabulary and the change from Varuna/Werunos to R'hllor, the only name of a god given so far. I guess it could also work as an example of the conversion to the R'hllorian cult. I can't resist pointing out that Stannis Baratheon also desires a son in the series. This has been a lot of fun and a good practice for the language which looks really cool, I hope the grammar is correct.

For more information about the fable and to hear an audio file of Andrew Byrd reciting it check: The King and the God parable.

_________________________________
Footnotes:

[1] We have no word for "once" or the construction "there was", not to mention that there could even be a special construction for "there was once..." as in story-telling.
[2] Probably the verb should be in the Imperfect Active, but we don't know the forms for many verbs.
[3] There original has here: "May a son be born to me!", but we have no word for "to be born".
[4] I assumed the subjunctive can here be used as a jussive construction of the type "May-it-be".
[5] Is this the correct usage of the verb? How about the cases?
[6] We don't have a word for "pray" so I had to use the next best thing: worship, a well-attested verb. Is this the correct imperative?
[7] Again, is this the correct usage of the verb? Are the cases correctly used?
[8] Is this the correct form of the Perfect Active?
[9] Replaced "Father Werunos" with "Lord R'hllor" as we have no word for "father" and this seems more appropriate when talking of R'hllor.
[10] We have no word for "heaven", also it seems more likely that the God of Light, R'hllor, should appear from a fire, maybe one used to communicate with him as seen in the series.
[11] Is this the correct form and usage of "skorion" for "what"? We have at least two sentences attested using a form of the root skor-, "Skorion massitas?" 'What happened?', and also "Skoros otāpā?" 'What do you think?'. Although we have some theories about the difference in these two it is still uncertain what each one actually represents, as the sentences seem to share the same structure and role of "what".
[12] Is this the correct term for "this" used as a pronoun "May THIS be done"?
[13] Replaced "bright god" with "god R'hllor of fire", taking "of fire" as a kind of attribute similar to "jelmazmo".