Archive for January, 2014

The Treasure of the Wastes

Friday, January 31st, 2014

So back when I announced the annual Dothraki haiku contest, I thought it would be fun to see if anyone could do something with High Valyrian. Then this thing basically became all about High Valyrian. Yikes!

All right, so let’s deal with that first. Since Japanese originally used mora counting for its haiku, I thought it would be cool to do that for High Valyrian, since it also had long and short vowels. Clearly I did not think this through. High Valyrian words are way too big for a haiku. The form just doesn’t make sense. If anything, one should only pay attention to syllables. That might make haiku possible for High Valyrian; it just makes the practice a little less interesting. Haiku seem to work very well for Dothraki, but it’s just not going to work for High Valyrian.

In discussing this with my wife, she had an idea: What about limericks? Kind of sillier, but I think it could work, because three of the lines are usually quite longer. I think of the classic limerick as being 9-9-5-5-9 (syllable count) with an AABBA rhyme scheme. However true limericks often will have more syllables than that (or fewer, as the case may be), which I think would suit High Valyrian quite well.

So this is what I want to try. Those who were trying to do High Valyrian haiku, try a limerick. Give it an AABBA rhyme scheme and try to make the B lines shorter, but there will be no strict syllable counts. We all know what limericks sound like, so you should try to make it sound like that. Use the heavy syllables to your advantage. If you want, you can have long vowels count for more than one syllable, if it makes sense in your schema, but you’ll be in charge of coming up with that schema (the poem itself will, essentially, argue for a meter). Anyway, once you’ve tried it out, if you think it’s doable, I’ll announce a separate High Valyrian limerick contest at some point in time later on. You’ll have more time than the Dothraki haiku contest, since the form is longer and a bit more complicated. Let me know what you think in the comments.

Now, unfortunately because of new work that has come up, I’m not going to be able to review as many submissions as I wanted to. If you’re new here, go check out the comments on the announcement post, because there’s some great material there. For this post, first let’s look at Joel W’s Valyrian haiku:

Māzīlzi
ōrbar ñuqīr
jelmyssi

The intended meaning is “Smoke and ash will come with the winds”. Very elegant! I like the use of the coordination strategy to stretch out the second line (i.e. lengthening the last vowel of ñuqir). Very well done! Technically it should be jelmȳssi, but that doesn’t change the mora count. Also the second line is one mora short if you discount codas. If you count the final r of ōrbar, though, it works, so I will count it. I like it! This is probably my favorite High Valyrian offering of the bunch.

This is another good one from Zhalio:

Gō ropatas
Valyria, yn vēzos
josīmonis.

That is “Valyria fell before, but the sun continues to rise”. That’s the literal translation. Discounting final consonants, that does work. Nice job! In the comments, Mad Latinist suggested that it shold be ropetas? It should not: ropatas is correct. This is because the stem is ropa-, not rop-. Easy mistake to make, though.

Honorary mentions go out to Zhalio and Joel W who tried to translate the Pater Noster, despite lacking most of the necessary words! You can see Zhalio’s translation here, and Joel W’s translation here. I don’t have time to review them, but will look into coining some of that vocabulary.

And before leaving Valyrian, I definitely want to mention Mad Latinist’s opening to the Dæneryd, which sounds like an awesome subject for an epic poem. Mad Latinist wrote up this post on his LiveJournal discussing and presenting two lines he wrote in epic Graeco-Roman hexameter in High Valyrian. The form is, indeed, much better suited to High Valyrian than a haiku is, and the result is incredible. The lines are here:

Ābre se zaldrīzī bone ivāedan hen Essot jitte
ēlī Pento se Dothrakoti Embraro rȳ ondoso vējo…

He didn’t attempt a fluent English translation, but I will: “Dragons and that woman I sing, from Essos sent / First through Pentos, then the Dothraki sea, by the hand of fate…” Sounds awesome. Sounds like something that should be attempted after the series has completed (I promise High Valyrian will have enough words to handle it at that point). It’d require GRRM to sign off on it, but wouldn’t that be awesome? After all, all the old myths are told and retold; they’re not made up whole cloth. Daenerys would be an outstanding subject for an epic poem (or I’m assuming. I too don’t know how it ends). You can hear Mad Latinist’s friend pronounce it here (good reading!).

If there is one quibble I’d have, it’s with ivāedan. Since the oblique applicative is being used, it should be standing in for some sort of adpositional phrase which is appropriate to the oblique applicative. Unfortunately if you want to say something “about” something, the postposition you’d use is , which is technically a locative postposition, so it should probably be uvāedan (and the cases would have to change accordingly). But maybe you could get away with ivāedan.

Okay, enough Valyrian. On to the Dothraki!

Let’s start with Hrakkar’s:

Me zheanalat
Chaf hol she mae noreth
Me davra hrazef

The intended meaning is, “She is beautiful, wind blew on her hair, she is a good horse”. Of course, “she” is just a translation choice; it could be “he” or “she” in Dothraki. There are a couple of things that need fixing. First, zheanalat is the infinitive; it should be zheanae. Next, the possessor comes after the thing it possesses, so it would be noreth mae, but also since “hair” is inalienably possessed, it should be moon, or just not expressed. I might also have used vi instead of she for “through her hair”. So it would be Chaf hol vi norethaan, which would indeed be seven syllables. It’s debatable, though. She is supposed to serve as the locative preposition that “makes sense”, so it could work here. In the last line, it should be hrazef davra (noun-adjective word order), but otherwise this is pretty good! I like it!

Here’s The Majesty’s submission:

Athkisar notat
Lirof mra lekhofaan
Noreth nem jesa

I think the intended meaning is “Trying to turn a great piece of writing into a great language is hair being pulled”. I’ll give you an A for effort here, The Majesty, but this doesn’t really work. Neither kis nor notat can be used in that way. But you did get the message across! Yeah, I gave up on trying to translate the prologue for the first book after sentence one.

Next we have Zhalio’s entry:

Vezh ahajana
Vosma mra noreth anni
Ale ayena.

A good translation of this is “The stallion is stronger, but my hair has more bells in it”. A nice one! Two things are standing in the way of this one being great, though. The first is that “hair” is inalienably possessed, so it should be noreth anhoon. That’d put it one syllable over, but you could do vosm’mra (it is poetry, after all). Second, adjectives follow nouns, so it should be ayena ale. I could see how you’d get a determiner reading for this, though. If you were to put it in front, I would say it has to be ale ayeni—maybe alikh ayeni, “a surplus of bells”. The content is terrific, though, and I really like the use of mra here as “have”. Ordinarily it’s just mra qora which is kind of used as “to have”, but it makes sense to use it with noreth here. Great job!

Now we move to Qvaak. This year Qvaak did a cycle of poems switching between High Valyrian and Dothraki. It was a bold attempt! You can see the whole thing here. I’ll only discuss the two Dothraki haiku here.

First, it begins with this:

Mra qevir noreth
fenoe hatifaan;
azho qosari.

My translation is, “In the forest, hair clings to one’s face: a gift of the spiders.” My only complaint is with the punctuation: I would’ve used a colon rather than a semi-colon. Otherwise, this is good Dothraki! Excellent choice of adding the inchoative -o suffix to fenat (an invention of Qvaak’s; wholly appropriate). I might also have said azho qosaroon, given where it comes from. Otherwise, very good—and certainly a feeling we all know, if you’ve ever run into a spiderweb.

But, of course, no poem with spiders in it is going to win the Mawizzi Virzeth! No, that honor goes to this haiku:

Mas athasari

tolorro mahrazhoa

finis adakh me.

My translation is “The treasure of the wastes is the bones of men whom it has devoured.” Qvaak translated this as “desert”, but there actually is a Dothraki word for “desert”: zelatha (inanimate, Class A). I think it’s also the mark of a good poem when the translation doesn’t do the original justice, and I think that is the case with this poem. I like that on account of the relative clause the subject is forced to go last. Gives it kind of a stinger at the end. Also, if you wanted to switch to “desert”, it’d be an easy fix: Just change it to masar zelathi. I like it the way it is, though. Very nice!

Here’s my rendition of it:

And, yes, this means that, three years running, the Mawizzi Virzeth goes to the evidently unbeatable Qvaak.

You’re a machine, Qvaak! A soulful, artistic machine. Hajas, zhey Qvaak!

The Red Rabbit, 2014, awarded to Qvaak!

Thank you to all who submitted haikus this year, and thank you to all those who ventured into Valyrian territory. Let me know what you think about my idea and we’ll see about starting up another competition. A different option might be two do a hexametrical couplet like Mad Latinist did, but I thought this might be too difficult. Thoughts? I’m open to either. Mad Latinist’s was outstanding.

today is gaunän (revisited)

Friday, January 31st, 2014
gaunän = today (adverb) (some things Google found for "gaunan": an uncommon term; a rare last name; user names; name of a place in North Cotabato province in the Philippines; part of island names in Basilan province in the Philippines)

Word derivation for "today":
Basque = gaur, Finnish = tänään
Miresua = gaunän

My previous Miresua conlang word for today was gänan. I decided to make this a 6-letter word. There are more than enough 5-letter words.

The word today (actually as to-day) occurs four times in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.

The Cheshire cat asked Alice, "Do you play croquet with the Queen to-day?"

In a hole in the ground…

Thursday, January 30th, 2014

In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit.
Rumalh Pochalh hal kstau Dhemaral (dhan Maral).
Rum-alh         Poch-alh             hal          kst-au                    Dhemaral
hole-INE        ground-INE       EXIST    live-PST.PFV       midget

Not a nasty, dirty, wet hole,
Odomme Rum marem kua hus mulaz.
Odon-me                        Rum                      mar-em                               kua      hus       mulaz
but.DS-unexpected      hole.NOM            NEG-COP.PST.PFV          dirty    nasty    wet

filled with the ends of worms
dime dlu Pochnérav oidau mor
di-me                             dlu     Poch-né-ra-v                              oidau                      mor
and.SS-unexpected    PL      earth-flexible-piece-ACC         have.PST.IPV       NEG

and an oozy smell
iamos chelhime mir.
iamos       Ches-lhim-e                             mir
or              rot-smell.of-PST.PFV            NEG

nor yet a dry, bare, sandy hole
Ezkisi ca Rum marem roch gaisde guone.
ez-kisi        ca                       Rum                  mar-em                                roch     gaisde  guone
but-also     DEM.NOM      hole.NOM       NEG-COP.PST.PFV           bare     dry        sandy

with nothing in it to sit down on or to eat:
Kisime aupstes manza
kisi-me                          aupste-s            manza
also-unexpected          warm-ADV       sit.PST.IPFV

di dreve thnen
di                 dreve         thn-en
and.SS        happily     eat-PST.IPFV 

it was a hobbit-hole, and that means comfort.
To em Dhemaral Rum,
to                     em                             Dhemaral         Rum
3S.N.NOM    COP.PST.PFV         midget.GEN     hole.NOM

ukué Aupstesos tov oive.
ukué             Aupstesos            to-v                   oive
therefore     comfort.NOM     3.S.N-ACC      characterize.PRS

 


Detail #75: Lack of a verb for ‘to stand’

Thursday, January 30th, 2014
Imagine a language where the closest to a verb such as 'to stand' really only signifies 'to do something in an upright position'. In English (and all other languages I know), when walking, you do not stand - you're doing so in an upright position, but you're not standing. Thus, to express 'I am standing (still)', you'd say something like 'I am and do so in an upright position', or 'I do nothing, and in an upright position'.

Now, the verb 'to stand' is flexible enough for lots of periphrastic things, but it'd seem this kind of 'gap' in its meaning would lead to even more periphrasis.

The Creation Myth of the At’ein’zei

Thursday, January 30th, 2014
       I'm in the process of revising for publication Beneath the Mountain of Heavy Fear, v.4 of The Labors of Ki'shto'ba Huge-Head.  In this book Ki'shto'ba and its Companions venture into the lands of the At'ein'zei, the People of the Root, a variant species of the Southern Nasutes.  They sojourn briefly in a fortress called No'ka'rim'bu'u, where Di'fa'kro'mi the Remembrancer learns the following tale, extracted from Chapter 2 of the book.  If you're interested in comparing it with the Creation Myth of Di'fa'kro'mi's people, the latter can be found in the sixth chapter of the second half of The Termite Queen, v.1: The Speaking of the Dead.
 

I never lost my curiosity about Creation Myths, however, and the Remembrancer of No’ka’rim’bu’u was willing to relate her own.  The Nameless Mother, she said, lives in the Primal Cave among the roots of a giant tree that the At’ein’zei consider to be the centerpost of the world.  She nourishes it with the secretions of her integument, for if it should die, she would die as well and then the world would end.  This is why these people were called the Offspring of the Root.  The shell of the Primal Cave keeps the world stable; groundquakes happen when rocks slip out of place in the Holy Walls.
      
The Sta’ein’zei, the Remembrancer informed me, believe something similar, but their Cave contains no root and they have no myth of a Primal Tree.  Their beliefs lack this softer vegetable component – perhaps that explained why they were so warlike …
       Whatever the nature of the center of the world, the Highest-Mother-Who-Is-Nameless laid her first eggs without benefit of a King’s insemination, and she was so fecund that soon the chamber became crammed full.  This forced some of the eggs to burst out of volcanic vents onto the surface of the world, from which they shot up into the sky and hatched into stars.  These were the first manifestations of light above ground.  Still other eggs burst their shells within the ground and heaved up the mountains.  Others emerged as rivers and fungi.
       However, after a while the Nameless Mother grew lonely and caused some of her eggs to hatch into Kings, not for the purpose of insemination but to serve as companions for herself.  Then she hatched others into Alates so she and her Kings could have cooler light than that which came from the hot stones of volcanoes.  Thus, they call Alates “Fire-Wings” rather than “Star-Wings,” and light-making, which we regard as fit only for Alates of the dimmest wit, is a highly respected occupation among the Southern Nasutes.
       Even then, the Nameless Creator was not fully satisfied, so she resolved to populate the world with creatures like herself.  She produced a copy of herself and made a Holy Chamber for this First Mother near the surface of the ground, where she could lay eggs of her own.  At first the only Castes were Alates and Workers and King-Companions; they all had eyes and could do anything they liked except dig their way to the surface.  But the Mother and Kings and Workers soon broke that taboo – only the Alates remained faithful to the Nameless One’s command – and when they saw the world with its rivers and mountains and stars, they fell in love with it.
      
So the Nameless One was angered and she resolved to punish her creation.  She took away the Workers’ eyes so they could not see the world they loved.  Then she ordained that they should no longer be nourished on the Great Root but should live in the World Above forever, dependent on whatever they could glean therein.  Furthermore, they would have to contend with one another for living room and sustenance.  For that purpose she created Warriors, eyeless and dependent on Workers for their food so they could not grow too powerful.  The Alates, who had never disobeyed her, were allowed to keep their eyes and she rewarded them by making them a conduit of holiness from herself to her creation.
       Soon she realized her offspring were languishing in this dark world, where the only thing to eat was fungus and the only warmth came from the volcanoes and the only light, from the stars.  So she made the sun out of the excess of the world’s hot volcanic excrement so they would have warmth and light, and she caused the Primal Root to send up shoots and generate the first trees and all the other plants so there would be a greater variety of nourishing food.  Then, having become infatuated with the act of creating, she made the animals also, simply because she could.  She discovered that this new order of things amused her greatly.  She would sometimes thrust her head out of the ground so that during darktimes her eyes were visible in the sky watching her world.
      
She had disciplined the Mothers by immobilizing them underground and making them dependent on the King-Companions for procreation, but when this latter arrangement proved more of a comfort than a punishment, she decided to give her own Kings the same function.  Ever since then she has mated, but it is said that even to this day the Highest-Mother-Who-Is-Nameless does not really need her Kings and sometimes grows tired of mating and casts them aside, or even eats them.  When this happens, great storms and droughts and catastrophes come upon the world.
       All of this was quite novel and fascinating to me, since it was both unlike the Shum’za Creation Myth and reflective of it.  Indeed, our own tale was beginning to seem a bit oversimplified to me.  I have related only the barest chitin of the myth here.  It closely resembled the Yo’sho’zei version, although that latter was even more complex.

Oteveel — Let it Go

Wednesday, January 29th, 2014
There was a challenge posted on Facebook to translate this song, and I'd been trying actively to NOT for a while.  It was stuck in my head pretty strongly, but I was so determined, haha.

Oh well, here it is. :D

I've got to stop creating new content for a while in order to focus on what already exists, so that I can get it ready for the Antho in April.  Sandic is ten years old this year!!

This song HAS been sung, but it comes out so very badly that I can't even. :p Sorry guys.

Order of texts: English -- Sandic -- English of Sandic

---------------

"Let It Go"

The snow glows white on the mountain tonight
Not a footprint to be seen
A kingdom of isolation,
And it looks like I’m the Queen.

The wind is howling like this swirling storm inside
Couldn’t keep it in, heaven knows I tried

Don’t let them in, don’t let them see
Be the good girl you always have to be
Conceal, don’t feel, don’t let them know
Well, now they know

Let it go, let it go
Can’t hold it back anymore
Let it go, let it go
Turn away and slam the door

I don’t care
What they’re going to say
Let the storm rage on,
The cold never bothered me anyway

It’s funny how some distance
Makes everything seem small
And the fears that once controlled me
Can’t get to me at all

It’s time to see what I can do
To test the limits and break through
No right, no wrong, no rules for me
I’m free

Let it go, let it go
I am one with the wind and sky
Let it go, let it go
You’ll never see me cry

Here I stand
And here I'll stay
Let the storm rage on

My power flurries through the air into the ground
My soul is spiralling in
frozen fractals all around

And one thought crystallizes
like an icy blast
I’m never going back,
The past is in the past

Let it go, let it go
When I'll rise like the break of dawn
Let it go, let it go
That perfect girl is gone

Here I stand
In the light of day
Let the storm rage on,
The cold never bothered me anyway

----

“Oteveel”

o jjujja meer nosr jeejee mau babrele:
lee iiran oahl ule:nialin
meto ta kanajjuin,
zum mee-e yahl ba ere.

ba le:yus bataluso wwee ba ake pa me
paelab exham aan biab kre, a jjiave ba pet

otian opeeneot jten, otoneot sa,
auzoi opeemee-e gre kala,
opeele:nial, otoneot sa
a inee aan osa

fele: yveel, nau yveel,
siad daniab frn ba yneot kre,
fele: yveel, nau yveel,
umantiale: baahl ba pe!

gorasoi
ba mii op frn me,
ake obamee-e,
iab ba feel baneot keesa!

masin aan paela ba fov
ta rerdabin bama keein,
ta teman eren me oxahl
siad daniab oneot tjeer!

Otesa frn krian paela me
biab ytefeed toa, griawabin ytepeet
auzob, lenab, pianabin yham
le:ee niasa!

fele: yveel, nau yveel,
ialth yahl ba le:yus wii le:yar!
fele: yveel, nau yveel,
jilab pal me peeteneot raug.

Zum fele: yahl
wii yteahl ker
ake obatoka

beeno me bapatas dru le:yus, pa ba grawwib!
le:ena me baruumso firaktilan hasin pal ivi

wiis me pal ivi
bateahlnia umai has
ejj yneot feedale:
uxsorei bateahl!

fele: yveel, nau yveel
sahei ytebrele: mlii
fele: yveel, nau yveel
fovi aahl ba hiaktale:i

zum ytovo
pa brele: ba mee-e
AKE OBATOOOOOKAAAA
iab ba feel gator bakeesa

---

“May I let it go”

On the mountain at night, the snow is glowing white
all the footprints are hidden
a kingdom of those in solitude,
apparently I am its ruler.

The wind howls like the storm inside of me
I lacked the strength to carry it (inside) despite the attempt

Don’t open yourself to them, don’t let them know
you must appear good forever
hide yourself, don’t let them know
but look, they know

I let it go, I let it go now
I’m not keeping anything more of it (inside)
I let it go, I let it go now
the attempt has been cut off! (“slammed shut”)

completely unimportant (is)
their opinion of me
let the storm show itself,
the cold does not bother me!

curious, the strength of distance
which makes difficulty small
the fears which were my rulers
rule nothing anymore!

I will know the fullness of my power,
I will supersede it, break the boundaries
There is no right or wrong or rules for me
O freedom!

I let it go, now I let it go,
I’m part of the wind and sky
I let it go, now I let it go
you will not see me sad.

Here I am
and I will remain
let the storm go on

My power flurries through the air into the ground
my soul is turning in frozen fractals all around
at my desire everywhere
everything can be turned to ice
I will not go back
it’s going to be forgotten!

I let it go, now I let it go
I will shine like the sun
I let it go, now I let it go
that sickly-perfect one is gone

I stand here
in the light of dawn*
let the storm GO OOOOOOON
the cold never bothers me.

yesterday is ailo (revisited)

Monday, January 27th, 2014
ailo = yesterday (adverb) (some things Google found for "ailo": a common term; an unusual Scandinavian masculine first name, notably Ailo Gaup which is the name of a Sámi author and also a Norwegian motocross rider; AILO is an acronym for the Association of International Life Offices; AILO is an acronym for American Indian Liaison Office; an unusual last name; Ailo is a dance band project; Ailo-Atynakovo is the name of a place in Russia; name of a place in Papua New Guinea)

Word derivation for "yesterday":
Basque = atzo, Finnish = eilen
Miresua = ailo

My previous Miresua conlang word for yesterday was azei. I changed this word because I didn't want the diphthong to be on the end of the word.

The word yesterday occurs three times in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.

Soon after Alice first enlarged, she said, "Dear, dear! How queer everything is to-day! And yesterday things went on just as usual...."

Test Sentences, 3

Monday, January 27th, 2014

The next set of sentences in Gary’s list are still discussing the sun:

  1. The sun shines brightly.
  2. The bright sun shines.
  3. The sun is rising now.

OK, sentence 8 adds an adverb, 9 an adjective. 10 is another time distinction, and a change of subject (in sodna-lɛni anyways).

8. loho logɨdiya evi loya.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
evi
evi.IMP
is moving out
loya
brightly
brightly

9. loho lo logɨdiya evi.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
lo
bright.MTsg
bright
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
evi
evi.IMP
is moving out

The adjective lo is modifying loho because a) adjectives follow nouns, and b) it’s also in the motile singular.

10. ala loho tɨŋi olaya.

ala
now
now
loho
sun.MTsg
sun
tɨŋi
tɨŋi.IMP
is moving
olaya
upwards
upwards

Look, a new verb! tɨŋi is actually the most basic verb in sodna-lɛni. It means to move (along a path) possibly towards a destination, possibly with a point of origin, but neither of those things are required.

olaya is a directional adverb. In my published grammar, I say that directional adverbs can be prefixed to the verbs. I have decided that olaya and tadya “downwards” can no longer be prefixed. The others still can.

ala is another time adverb, and generally appears in the source slot.

In Kēlen:

8. la anlōki anlūi;

la
LA
anlōki
sunlight
anlūi
bright

“The sunlight is bright.”

9. la malō malū;

la
LA
malō
sun
malū
bright

“The sun is bright.” Kēlen doesn’t have adverbs, just adjectives.

10. āl ñi malō rājōl;

āl
now
ñi
NI
malō
sun
rājōl
to the top

“The sun is rising now.”

Test Sentences, 2

Friday, January 24th, 2014

The next set of sentences in Gary’s list are:

  1. The sun shone.
  2. The sun will shine.
  3. The sun has been shining.
  4. The sun is shining again.
  5. The sun will shine tomorrow.

OK. More tense and aspect distinctions. sodna-lɛni doesn’t actually distinguish tense (this is an experiment on my part), which means that there is no difference in 3 and 5.

3|5. loho logɨdiya tavi.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
tavi
evi.PRF
ceased moving out

4. loho logɨdiya evi dɛga.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
evi
evi.IMP
is moving out
dɛga
FUT
in the future

6. loho logɨdiya evi iyɛ iyɛ.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
evi
evi.IMP
is moving out
iyɛ iyɛ
again
again

7. loho logɨdiya evi dɛga lannal.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
evi
evi.IMP
is moving out
dɛga
FUT
in the future
lannal
tomorrow
tomorrow

tavi is the perfect form of evi.

dɛga is the future modal, and it denotes certainty in one’s prediction.

iyɛ iyɛ and lannal are both time adverbs.

In Kēlen, again 3 & 5 are the same:

3|5. te anlōki;

la
LA.PAST
existed
anlōki
sunlight
sunlight

4. la anlōki rēha;

la
LA
exists
anlōki
sunlight
sunlight
rēha
FUT
in the future

6. la anlōki ī;

la
LA
exists
anlōki
sunlight
sunlight
ī
again
again

7. la anlōki lānnāl;

la
LA
exists
anlōki
sunlight
sunlight
lānnāl
tomorrow
tomorrow

(And, yes, the words for ‘tomorrow’ in both languages are related.)

hand is uski (revisited)

Thursday, January 23rd, 2014
uski = hand (noun) (some things Google found for "uski": a common term; an unusual last name that can be Finnish; Uski Roti (English title: Our Daily Bread) is a 1969 Hindi drama film; USKI ski equipment designed for children; in Serbo-Croatian uski is forms of uzak meaning narrow; means her in Hindi (transliterated); name of places in Finland and Russia)

Word derivation for "hand" :
Basque = esku, Finnish = käsi
Miresua = uski

My previous Miresua word for hand was uskä. This is a very minor change. I'm trying to lessen the number of nouns ending in a or ä. It'll make the grammar somewhat simplier.

The word hand occurs many times in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. When the Hatter was called as the first witness in court, "he came in with a teacup in one hand and a piece of bread-and-butter in the other."