Archive for May, 2014

Test Sentences, 84

Saturday, May 31st, 2014

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. He is small, but strong.

But? But. I hereby decree that “but” requires a serial predicate. And the adverb badi “unexpectedly, but-ly”.

114. mava sɛdɛ ɨsa sɛdɛ kɨtɬɛ badi dɛstɛ.

mava
3P.MTsg
sɛdɛ
sɛdɛ.IMP
ɨsa
small.MTsg
sɛdɛ
sɛdɛ.IMP
kɨtɬɛ
strong.MTsg
badi
but
dɛstɛ
I’m told

Questions?

end is lopai

Saturday, May 31st, 2014
lopai = end (noun) (some things Google found for "lopai": a uncommon term; LOPAI is a Dutch acronym for Landelijk Overleg Provinciale Archief Inspecteurs (National Organization of Provincial Archives Inspectors); a rare last name; a very rare first name; gaming character names; in Lithuanian lopai means patches; name of a town in China)

Word derivation for "end":
Basque = amai, Finnish = loppu
Miresua = lopai

The noun end occurs over a dozen times in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
..."and I wish you wouldn't keep appearing and vanishing so suddenly: you make one quite giddy."

"All right," said the Cat; and this time it vanished quite slowly, beginning with the end of the tail, and ending with the grin....

Test Sentences, 83

Friday, May 30th, 2014

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. They opened all the doors and windows.

They sent all the doors and windows to open.

113. mavna syudɨdi nadɨdi kotɬɨdinɛn otni okottɨdi dɛstɛ.

mavna
3P.MTpl
syudɨdi
door.MTpl
nadɨdi
all.MTpl
kotɬɨdi
window.MTpl
-nɛn
with
otni
tɨŋi.PRF
okottɨdi
open.MTpl
dɛstɛ
I’m told

Questions?

Test Sentences, 82

Thursday, May 29th, 2014

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. You and I will go together.

And this is really simple. Togetherness is implied with -nɛn. To say otherwise, you would have to add the adverb liya ‘separately’.

112. ŋidi lenɛn tɨŋi dɛga.

ŋidi
2P.MTsg
le
1P.MTsg
-nɛn
with
tɨŋi
tɨŋi.IMP
dɛga
FUT

Questions?

Test Sentences, 81

Wednesday, May 28th, 2014

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. John and Elizabeth are brother and sister.

This is actually fairly straightforward.

111. John Elizabethnɛn sɛdɛ kaɬa tiɬanɛn dɛstɛ.

John
J.MTsg
Elizabeth
E.MTsg
-nɛn
with
sɛdɛ
sɛdɛ.IMP
kaɬa
brother.MTsg
tiɬa
sister.MTsg
-nɛn
with
dɛstɛ
I’m told

Questions?

Detail 88: Verbs of motion

Tuesday, May 27th, 2014
Often, languages differ in what exact things they encode in their verbs of motion: is it manner (run vs. walk vs. slouch vs. mosey vs. hobble) or direction/aim (ascend, descend, enter, exit, approach, circumambulate). We find that in English, Latin loans tend to incorporate direction and such information, whereas Germanic inherited words tend to just encode the manner of motion.

Typologically, these two seem to be the categories of most interest.

What if we'd have verbs also encode for environment of movement? In English, we have wade (for walking in water), and sort of trek (often for walking in mountains or wilderness although it seems to increasingly also encode something about the type of walk you're taking: a walk of considerable distance for enjoying nature). But let's code for things like walk in mud, walk in water, walk in a forest, walk in a hilly area,walk in a desert, ...and then the same for run, and for a few others.

In one way, it'd tell us quite a bit more about what the culture the language is supposed to present cares to code for.

Test Sentences, 80

Tuesday, May 27th, 2014

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. Pip and his dog were great friends.

This paraphrases to Pip and the cat (no dogs!) are inside friends. Now, people sɛdɛ and cats tɛndɛ. Either can be used for a combination. Since friends is also a class I noun, I would use sɛdɛ and elevate the cat to personhood. But then, I am a cat person.

110. Pip idɛlnɛn esɛdɛ syanna dɛstɛ.

Pip
Pip.MTsg
idɛl
cat.MTsg
-nɛn
with
e-
in
sɛdɛ
sɛdɛ.IMP
syanna
friend.MTpl
dɛstɛ
I’m told

Questions?

nonsense is zengahöly

Tuesday, May 27th, 2014
zengahöly = nonsense (noun) (some things Google found for "zengaholy": an unique term, did not match any documents)

Word derivation for "nonsense":
Basque = zentzugabekeria
(zentzu = sense |  -gabe = -less |  -keria = -ness)
Finnish = hölynpöly   (where hölmö = silly, nitwit)
Miresua = zengahöly

This, I think, is a fitting word for nonsense. Note, that like Finnish, the Y is pronounced like U in French, or Ü in German. My Miresua word is as long as the shorter of the two words, nine letters.

The word nonsense occurs seven times in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
The Queen turned crimson with fury, and, after glaring at her for a moment like a wild beast, screamed "Off with her head! Off--"

"Nonsense!" said Alice, very loudly and decidedly, and the Queen was silent.

Test Sentences, 79

Monday, May 26th, 2014

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. Be careful.
  2. Have some tea.

These are: You go carefully. and A cuppa tea goes to you Q. #109 isn’t really a command or even a polite request. It’s a question.

108. ŋidi tɨŋi mɨdeya ki.

ŋidi
2P.MTsg
tɨŋi
tɨŋi.IMP
mɨdeya
carefully
ki
HORT

109. mahɨdɛn tɨŋi ŋideya dɛmɛ.

mahɨdɛn
cup of tea.MTsg
tɨŋi
tɨŋi.IMP
ŋideya
2P.SSsg
dɛmɛ
DUB

And now we are half way to 218!

Questions?

The Turul Bird: an Addendum to My Bird Myth Posts

Sunday, May 25th, 2014
Turul, Hungarian mythological bird above the
Habsburg Steps overlooking the Royal Palace
 of Buda, by Peter Brown, in
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turul
(Creative Commons
       I recently learned about another giant mythical bird and I don't want to omit it from my register!
       I was reading a couple of books with characters descended from the Huns (Erika M. Szabo's pair of novels in the Guarded Secrets series, currently undergoing revision) and the Turul bird is mentioned.  It's a feature of  Hungarian mythology.
 
       According to Wikipedia (Turul), the word Turul probably has a Turkic origin (togrıl or turgul), meaning a medium to large bird of prey such as a Goshawk or Red Kite.  In Hungarian three different ancient words are used to describe different kinds of falcons, one of which is turul.
       In Magyar myth of the 9th century (which like most early myths were written down at a much later date), Emese was impregnated (either actually or in a dream) by a Turul bird and a stream of water came from her womb, signifying that her son, Almos, would be the founder of a glorious lineage for the Magyar people, which would spread out over the land like a great stream.
      The Turul bird itself was reputed to sit in the Tree of Life. I'm quoting from Wikipedia (Hungarian mythology) here:
 
"In Hungarian myth, the world is divided into three spheres: the first is the Upper World (Felső világ), the home of the gods; the second is the Middle World (Középső világ) or world we know, and finally the underworld (Alsó világ). In the center of the world stands a tall tree: the World Tree / Tree of Life (Világfa/Életfa). Its foliage is the Upper World, and the Turul bird dwells on top of it. The Middle World is located at its trunk and the underworld is around its roots. In some stories, the tree has fruit: the golden apples."
 
       If you've been reading my Hercules posts, you know that the idea of a tree bearing golden apples occurs in the myths of many cultures, as does the Tree of Life or World Tree concept.
       In the article on Turul, Wikipedia states that the Turul became a symbol of power, strength, and nobility and is often portrayed with a sword in its talons. Its image is still used today on the coats of arms of various Hungarian governmental agencies.
 
     Here are  other URLs leading to concise restatements of the myths:
http://thehungariangirl.com/2012/04/13/turul-hungarys-mythical-bird/ 
http://www.hunmagyar.org/mondak/turul.html
http://users.cwnet.com/millenia/turul.htm
 
       However, not everybody in Hungary likes the Turul bird and what it has occasionally been used to symbolize; for that aspect see http://hungarianspectrum.wordpress.com/2008/07/27/that-cursed-statue-of-an-eagle/