Archive for May, 2014

The Turul Bird: an Addendum to My Bird Myth Posts

Sunday, May 25th, 2014
Turul, Hungarian mythological bird above the
Habsburg Steps overlooking the Royal Palace
 of Buda, by Peter Brown, in
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turul
(Creative Commons
       I recently learned about another giant mythical bird and I don't want to omit it from my register!
       I was reading a couple of books with characters descended from the Huns (Erika M. Szabo's pair of novels in the Guarded Secrets series, currently undergoing revision) and the Turul bird is mentioned.  It's a feature of  Hungarian mythology.
 
       According to Wikipedia (Turul), the word Turul probably has a Turkic origin (togrıl or turgul), meaning a medium to large bird of prey such as a Goshawk or Red Kite.  In Hungarian three different ancient words are used to describe different kinds of falcons, one of which is turul.
       In Magyar myth of the 9th century (which like most early myths were written down at a much later date), Emese was impregnated (either actually or in a dream) by a Turul bird and a stream of water came from her womb, signifying that her son, Almos, would be the founder of a glorious lineage for the Magyar people, which would spread out over the land like a great stream.
      The Turul bird itself was reputed to sit in the Tree of Life. I'm quoting from Wikipedia (Hungarian mythology) here:
 
"In Hungarian myth, the world is divided into three spheres: the first is the Upper World (Felső világ), the home of the gods; the second is the Middle World (Középső világ) or world we know, and finally the underworld (Alsó világ). In the center of the world stands a tall tree: the World Tree / Tree of Life (Világfa/Életfa). Its foliage is the Upper World, and the Turul bird dwells on top of it. The Middle World is located at its trunk and the underworld is around its roots. In some stories, the tree has fruit: the golden apples."
 
       If you've been reading my Hercules posts, you know that the idea of a tree bearing golden apples occurs in the myths of many cultures, as does the Tree of Life or World Tree concept.
       In the article on Turul, Wikipedia states that the Turul became a symbol of power, strength, and nobility and is often portrayed with a sword in its talons. Its image is still used today on the coats of arms of various Hungarian governmental agencies.
 
     Here are  other URLs leading to concise restatements of the myths:
http://thehungariangirl.com/2012/04/13/turul-hungarys-mythical-bird/ 
http://www.hunmagyar.org/mondak/turul.html
http://users.cwnet.com/millenia/turul.htm
 
       However, not everybody in Hungary likes the Turul bird and what it has occasionally been used to symbolize; for that aspect see http://hungarianspectrum.wordpress.com/2008/07/27/that-cursed-statue-of-an-eagle/
 

Test Sentences, 78

Sunday, May 25th, 2014

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. Come with us.
  2. Bring your friends with you.

These two have exactly the same structure. Go with us, and go with your friends.

106. ŋidi lɛnnanɛn tɨŋi ki.

ŋidi
2P.MTsg
lɛnna
1P.MTpl
-nɛn
with
tɨŋi
tɨŋi.IMP
ki
HORT

107. ŋidi syannanɛn tɨŋi ki.

ŋidi
2P.MTsg
syannanɛn
friend.MTpl
tɨŋi
with
ki
tɨŋi.IMP

Questions?

Test Sentences, 77

Saturday, May 24th, 2014

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. Keep this secret until tomorrow.

This needs paraphrased to Don’t say this hidden-thing before tomorrow. And hidden-thing is an example of an adjective without its noun, so therefore a nominalized adjective. And mɛdduso is duso prefixed to allow only one S. Since duso is often used for speech between multiple people, this implies an unspoken someone for you to tell the secret to.

105. ŋidi lamɨdɛn mɛdduso lannal galaba be.

ŋidi
2P.MTsg
lamɨdɛn
secret.MTsg
mɛh-
out
duso
duso.IMP
lannal
tomorrow
galaba
before
be
NEG.CMD

Questions?

Test Sentences, 76

Friday, May 23rd, 2014

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. Listen.
  2. Sit here by me.

Right, commands. Commands are marked with an end-of-clause particle ka. There is also be for negative commands, and ki for polite requests. Since this has a period and not an exclamation point, I am going to assume it is a polite request.

“Listen.” translates to “to your ears this comes”.

103. ŋi sada deya ono ki.

ŋi
2P
sada
ear.MTsg
deya
this.MTsg
ono
ono.IMP
ki
HORT

104. ŋidi dantɛndɛ leneya ki.

ŋidi
2P.MTsg
dan-
along
tɛndɛ
tɛndɛ.IMP
leneya
1P.SSsg

Questions?

throne is taruin

Friday, May 23rd, 2014
taruin = throne (noun) (some things Google found for "taruin": an uncommon to unusual term; user names; a very rare last name; name of a World of Warcraft character; name of a place in the video game Neverwinter Nights 2: Storm of Zehir; in Finnish taruin is an instructive case form of taru meaning legend; similar Tarui is the name of a town in Japan)

Word derivation for "throne":
Basque = tronu
Finnish = valtaistuin    (valta (power) + istuin (seat))
Miresua = taruin

The word throne occurs once in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
The King and Queen of Hearts were seated on their throne when they arrived, with a great crowd assembled about them -- all sorts of little birds and beasts, as well as the whole pack of cards...."

Test Sentences, 75

Thursday, May 22nd, 2014

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. How wide is the river?

The river lies which wide?

102. tanan daɬa baŋi oɬon dɛmɛ?

tanan
river.MTsg
daɬa
daɬa.IMP
baŋi
which
oɬon
wide.MTsg
dɛmɛ
DUB

Questions?

Dairwueh: Verbs for possession

Thursday, May 22nd, 2014
Dairwueh almost conforms to the average European way of having a verb primarily used for such constructions. However, it is not a direct translation of 'to have'. In fact, there is not one verb but two, with certain distinctions.

The two main verbs are gadek and surdun. Gadek is used when the possession of a thing is seen as something beneficial. On the opposing side, surdun obviously stands for ungainful possession.

By adding a reflexive morpheme, gadek and surdun become intensive. The intensive of surdun basically means 'being overburdened by, succumbing to', whereas gadek in its intensive form tends to be used to denote strategic, decisive advantages given by the possessed thing.

Certain things that English could express using have is not expressed that way in Dairwueh. Diseases are suffered, pusteg, you are born, imbet, for your relatives (who are in the dative), younger relatives are born to the status of having you as a relative, placing you in the dative. The verbs used for expressing relatives also are used to state other things about relations. These complications require a small diversion:

eme imbewis nesepalci resepank 
I     born.past saints.dat criminals.dat.and
I have saints and criminals for relatives/my relatives are saints and criminals
 eme imbewis loparci 
I born.past brother.dat - I have a(n older) brother
lopar imbewiŋ wemibrother born.pastIIIsg me.dat - I have a (younger) brother 
If one wants to express a multitude of relatives, if there is a single one older than the person whose relatives are being listed, that person is the subject, if all are younger, he's the indirect object.
eme komi imbewis sopind
I him-dat born-1sg_past cousin - I was born his cousin
kon wemi imbewiŋ sopind
 he me-dat ... - he was born my cousin
Generally, ungainful but unharmful possession is expressed using gadek. However, if there is a need to distinguish neutral status from beneficial status - which does happen on occasion, more so in the literary and legal languages than in colloquial varieties, a number of periphrastic constructions are used, such as "X is Y-dat", "Y holds X", "Y took X" for the neutral type.

Test Sentences, 74

Wednesday, May 21st, 2014

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. Are these shoes too big for you?

Here we will use a prefixed form of tɛndɛ, namely etɛndɛ, which with an adjective in the location spot means “A is very ADJ”. So: For you, these shoes sit very big?

101. ŋideya dayi kyati etɛndɛ oni dɛmɛ?

ŋideya
2p.SSsg
dayi
III.SSpl
kyati
shoe.SSpl
e-
in
tɛndɛ
tɛndɛ.IMP
oni
big.SSpl
dɛmɛ
DUB

Questions?

Test Sentences, 73

Tuesday, May 20th, 2014

Continuing with Gary’s list:

  1. Is this the first kitten of the litter?

This sits (as) the litter’s first kitten?

100. ha tɛndɛ moɬkɛdɛ da iddɨse andana dɛmɛ?

ha
II.MTsg
tɛndɛ
tɛndɛ.IMP
moɬkɛdɛ
litter.SSsg
da
PS
iddɨse
kitten.MTsg
andana
first.MTsg
dɛmɛ
DUB

Questions?

Recap #3

Monday, May 19th, 2014

I suppose, now that I have done 99 sentences, I should do a recap. Rather than go through multiple posts on vocabulary, though, I am going to give you a small present: a pdf of the dictionary, in progress…

You might like some of the stuff at the back, too.