my naim is wug
and wen you’r yung
and sussing owt
yur nativ tung
and wen ther’s tu
of mee arownd
you pik the sownd
Archive for February, 2017
|A. deŋi=A=O||A scratch, dig O|
|B. kaŋŋi=A=O||A pierce, poke O|
Deŋi can be seen as a more intense form of kugi, as it involves touching with some force. Kaŋŋi would be even more intense. The etymologies of both these verbs are unknown. Kaŋŋi is used sometimes used with other verbs to add a sense of puncturing, as in:
|C. dello-kaŋŋi=S||S sprout (piercing the soil)|
|D. kuppe-kaŋŋi=A=O||A throw O through something, piercing it|
|E. kaŋŋi-kaŋŋi=A=O||A kill O (by stabbing or cutting)|
Reduplicated deŋi-deŋi=S is the standard, polite way to describe sexual activity. It is intransitive, usually with a plural subject. With a singular subject, a companion an be added with the peripheral phrase marker ne. The other sexual verbs, kugi-kugi=S (referencing manual stimulation), kaŋŋi-deŋi=A=O (A penetrates O), and kaŋŋi-kuno=S (S is penetrated), are not polite and should not be used with people one doesn’t know.
And that’s it. That’s all 38 verbs in Xunumi-Wudu.
|A. kugi=A=O||A touch, rub O|
|B. gada-kugi=A=O||A wash O (with water)|
Kugi appears to be derived from an older form of the word kuwu ‘hand’ and some unknown particle. Gada-kugi incorporates the noun gada ‘water’ as an instrument or manner adverb. Another kugi compound is kugi-kenni:
|C. kugi-kenni=A=O||A shake O|
|D. kugi-kenni=S||S shake|
Reduplicated kugi-kugi is one of the verbs used to describe sexual activity.
Tomorrow: deŋi and kaŋŋi.
|A. kuppe=A=O||A throw O|
|B. kenni=A=O||A hit O|
Kuppe is derived from an older form of the word kuwu ‘hand’ and pe ‘from’. The derivation of kenni is unknown. Both are straightforward.
A reduplication of kuppe is not attested, but kenni-kenni means ‘A beat O’, a logical interpretation of ‘hit and hit’ or ‘hit with some duration’.
Reduplication generally adds a sense of duration to the verb, unless the verb also occurs as an auxiliary. Since, with the introduction of auxiliaries, reduplication no longer productive, some reduplicated forms, such as kadde-kadde, have a less predictable meaning.
|A. kullo=A=O||A pull, drag O|
|B. deggu=A=O||A cover, hide O|
Kullo is derived from an older form of the word kuwu ‘hand’ and the obsolete particle lo ‘up’. Aside from its base meaning, kullo occurs in occasional compounds, such as kuje-kullo ‘weave’. The reduplicated form kullo-kullo means ‘pull for some time’.
Deggu is probably derived from degi and some unknown particle, possibly the old form of ‘hand’ kuwu. Adding the auxiliary kutta makes deggu-kutta ‘cover completely’. The reduplicated form would have the meaning ‘cover for some time’ but it is not attested.
Tomorrow: kuppe and kenni.
|A. kutta=A=O||A push O|
|B. auxiliary V-kutta||V with force|
Kutta is derived from an older form of the word kuwu ‘hand’ and the obsolete particle ta ‘down’. As a verb it means ‘push’. It is more common to see kutta as an auxiliary.
I glossed the auxiliary as meaning ‘with force’. It can also mean ‘quickly’ with da and no and any of their compounds (data, dello, deye, nolo, nota, nome, noye), ‘tightly’ with kuje, ‘thoroughly’ or ‘carefully’ with dunno and callo, ‘strongly’ or ‘passionately’ with canno, ‘well’ with dullo, ‘loudly’ with se, and adds a sense of ‘very’ withe the copula verbs. It is not used with verbs of stance or starting or ending.
The reduplicated kutta-kutta yields a straightforward ‘push with force’.
Tomorrow: kullo and deggu.
|A. kuje=A=O||A twist, turn O|
|B. kuje=S||S twist, turn|
Kuje is derived from an older form of the word kuwu ‘hand’ and the obsolete particle ye ‘out’.
As a simple intransitive, kuje means ‘twist, turn’ where the subject is the person or thing twisting or turning. Kuje can also be used to describe braiding (twisting together) and other activities done with long strands of something. Weaving can also be described with kuje (though kuje-kullo is the usual verb, but I haven’t covered kullo yet.). If one is creating something with all this twisting, the thing being created is generally the object and the material being twisted can be in a peripheral phrase marked with pe. One can also make the material the object and thing created can be in a peripheral phrase marked with du.
- enabling preprepositional arguments for subjects, objects and indirect objects
- intensification of the verb (optional)
- topicalization (optional for fronted objects)
- gerund formation for whenever the gerunds are subjects or objects
- a variety of things with regards to transitivity-changing operations
- introduces direct objects with normally intransitive verbs
- introduces datives for verbs that normally do not take them
- marking resumptive pronouns that are objects (mandatory)
Preprepositional arguments of subjects and objects serve certain roles:
For subjects, it represents the role a subject is or is imagined to be in:
sparage -ŋa ne Armus side erb -aŋ farmer
good is 3sg I as a farmer Armus good is
as a farmer, Armus is goodFor objects, it represents, likewise, the role an object is in; there can be a causal relation - I ate something because it was food. I gave someone something because it was their inheritance. For indirect objects, ne can also be used for causal relations: I gave someone something because he was a cleric. ser does not permit causal relations: the preprepositional marks the use for which a direct object was given the indirect object. Notably, ser cannot stand with all dative arguments, only with those that are indirect objects.
|A. auxiliary V-deme||ought to V|
|B. auxiliary V-tello||must V|
Both of these verbs are auxiliary only. Deme expresses mild obligation and tello expresses strong obligation. Tello is used for polite imperatives, as in: Kuno-tello=di=nu! ‘You must get the thing!’ or ‘Get the thing!’.
Deme is probably derived from da ‘go’ and the obsolete particle me ‘in’. Tello is derived from tene and the obsolete particle lo ‘up’.
Deme and tello are used with kuno to express want and need. Kuno-deme with a complement clause is ‘want to’ and kuno-tello with a complement clause is ‘need to’.
These two auxiliaries exist because as a native English speaker I cannot imagine not having them. I know of no work-arounds to expressing obligation than using ‘should/ought’ or ‘must’ (or ‘need’ or ‘got to’). I am sure there are other ways to express obligation, but I have no idea what they are or how they work. Of course, I haven’t gone looking recently for other ideas because the existing system works so well!