Archive for May, 2019

Nuvuza Tani 2

Friday, May 24th, 2019

Text and Translation

Nara zales kines luŋeta baŋibaŋi. Alaza kalatepe gohotepe lakatepe sara. Sarunos pezes yutonda seleno. Nuvonda yutu selese. Hadas tanatana luŋera.

Luŋeya sorove, “Diya liyes tesi gohorahi?” Kumoya rusuve, “Be! Liyes harazidu linda viri gohose.”

“Dinda yutoza tesi kalanen liŋinahi?” “Kalanen liŋizidu viri yutuse.”

“Ŋiri kele muroza dika. Dinda yutoza tesi kalanen liŋinahido vene zeninen diŋi, liya lisataza nara mururazi.” Nuvoya ruluve, “Enda pezes ira! Lidu ese, kegevenen mape vekeve yendodo evu.”

One night a star falls to earth. They go for a time, cold, hungry, and shelter-less. They see light from a campfire in the distance. The light is Nuvu’s campfire. The star hurries to it.

The star says, “Could you give me some food?” The man replies, “No! There is not enough of my food for me to eat.”

“Could I make myself a little bit warm near your campfire?” “There is not enough campfire to make me warm.”

“You have some fine mats.You did not allow that I could make make myself a little bit warm near your campfire; I will put one mat around my body.” Nuvu shouts, “Go away from those! They are for me and not for lazy people who do not work.“

Interlinear and Explanation

Nara zales kines luŋeta baŋibaŋi.

nara
nara
one
zales
zali=s
night=LOC
kines
kini=s
land=LOC
luŋeta
luŋi=ta
star=DOWN
baŋibaŋi
baŋibaŋi
unexpectedly
One night a star falls to earth.

Alaza kalatepe gohotepe lakatepe sara.

alaza
ala=za
now=PATH
kalatepe
kala-tepe
heat-less
gohotepe
goho-tepe
food-less
lakatepe
laka-tepe
hut-less
sa=ra
sa=ra
3SG.RA=GO
They go for a time, cold, hungry, and shelterless.

Sarunos pezes yutonda seleno.

sarunos
sa=runu=s
3SG.RA=eye=LOC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
yutonda
yutu=nda
campfire=SRC
seleno
sele=no
light=COME
They see light from a campfire in the distance.

Nuvonda yutu selese.

Nuvonda
Nuvu=nda
Nuvu=SRC
yutu
yutu
campfire
selese
sele=se
light=STAY
The light is Nuvu’s campfire.

Hadas tanatana luŋera.

hadas
hada=s
3SG.IN=LOC
tanatana
tanatana
quick
luŋera
luŋi=ra
star=GO
The star hurries to it.

Luŋeya sorove, “Diya liyes tesi gohorahi?”

luŋeya
luŋi=ya
star=CAUS
sorove
soro=vi
word=OUT
diya
di=ya
2SG=CAUS
liyes
liye=s
1SG=LOC
tesi
tesi
few
gohorahi
goho=ra=hi
food=GO=POT
The star says, “Could you give me some food?”

Kumoya rusuve, “Be! Liyes harazidu linda viri gohose.”

kumoya
kumu=ya
man=CAUS
rusuve
rusu=vi
reply=OUT
be!
be!
no!
liyes
liye=s
1SG=LOC
harazidu
ha=ra=zi=du
3SG.IN=GO=FUT=GOAL
linda
li=nda
1SG=SRC
viri
viri
not.enough
gohose
goho=se
food=STAY
The man replies, “No! There is not enough of my food for me to eat.”

“Dinda yutoza tesi kalanen liŋinahi?”

dinda
di=nda
2SG=SRC
yutoza
yutu=za
campfire=PATH
tesi
tesi
few
kalanen
kala=nen
heat=COM
liŋinahi
li=ŋi=na=hi
1SG=MOVE=START=POT
“Could I make myself a little bit warm near your campfire?”

“Kalanen liŋizidu viri yutuse.”

kalanen
kala=nen
heat=COM
liŋizidu
li=ŋi=zi=du
1SG=MOVE=FUT=GOAL
viri
viri
not
yutuse
yutu=se
enough
“There is not enough campfire to make me warm.”

“Ŋiri kele muroza dika.

ŋiri
ŋiri
some
kele
kele
fine
muroza
muru=za
mat=PATH
dika
di=ka
2SG=TOUCH
“You have some fine mats.

Dinda yutoza tesi kalanen liŋinahido vene zeninen diŋi, liya lisataza nara mururazi.”

dinda
di=nda
2SG=SRC
yutoza
yutu=za
campfire=PATH
tesi
tesi
few
kalanen
kala=nen
heat=COM
liŋinahido
li=ŋi=na=hi=du
1SG=MOVE=START=POT=GOAL
vene
vene
none
zeninen
zeni=nen
expectation=COM
diŋi
di=ŋi
2SG=MOVE
liya
li=ya
1SG=CAUS
lisataza
li=sata=za
1SG=body=PATH
nara
nara
one
mururazi
muru=ra=zi
mat=GO=FUT
You did not allow that I could make make myself a little bit warm near your campfire; I will put one mat around my body.”

Nuvoya ruluve, “Enda pezes ira!

Nuvoya
Nuvu=ya
Nuvu=CAUS
ruluve
rulu=vi
shout=OUT
enda
e=nda
3PL.IN=SRC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
ira
i=ra
3SG.AN=GO
Nuvu shouts, “Go away from those!

Lidu ese, kegevenen mape vekeve yendodo evu.”

lidu
li=du
1SG=GOAL
ese
e=se
3PL.IN=STAY
kegevenen
kegeve=nen
work=COM
mape
ma=pe
PL.AN=FAIL
vekeve
vekeve
lazy
yendodo
yenda=du
people=GOAL
evu
e=vu
3PL.IN=NOT
They are for me and not for lazy people who do not work.“

An Entirely Unrelated Thing

Wednesday, May 22nd, 2019
I mentioned a while ago two life changes that conspire to keep me posting a bit less; indeed, the two changes keep doing so, and due to the nice perks of my new job, I also got a third life change: I've started working out. So that also keeps me a bit occupied, but I think it might be good for the mental faculties in the long run and thus probably will be beneficial for my creativity as well.

However, what I really wanted to mention - and this is a thing I intended to do way back but forgot about in all the every day hassle - is the instagram account of one of the life changes. For readers who are so inclined, meet Oswald the tibbie.

Currently, I am really thinking a lot about my main big conlangs, and this is also reducing the posting frequency significantly. Trying to figure out how to make Bryatesle, Sargaĺk and Dairwueh descend from a single proto-language – and the same for Ŋʒädär and Ćwarmin - does take quite an effort, and developing them all simultaneously also takes some thinking.

Finally, a personal project I've been doing for a while, and which I intend to make into a full-fledged, uh, thing, is my microtonal pitch perception and theory exercise webapp. Currently it is in an alpha stage, and the sound only works on firefox and edge (maybe safari?). Future features will be:
  • persistent states (i.e. it will remember where you left)
  • better sound that also works in chrome
  • a better menu system
  • a login system
  • the app will gather stats about progress in order maybe to be able to improve the exercises to have a better effect?
  • achievements
  • more content, esp. with regards to chord progressions
  • Just Intonation, well-temperaments, more equal temperaments
    • Just Intonation will almost necessitate some type of hexagonal key layout as an option in addition to the piano-based layouts
  • some generative content
  • some ability for the users to generate their own exercises
  • The basic engine also seems rather well-suited for some kind of 'microtonal scale and chord encyclopedia' type of use.
I figure the microtonal pitch perception exercise thing may be of some interest to conworlders. However, I am also interested in hearing feedback! Known issues at the time are:
  • sound engine timing
  • sound quality in general
  • navigability
So, don't complain about those quite yet ...  they're under work.

    An Entirely Unrelated Thing

    Wednesday, May 22nd, 2019
    I mentioned a while ago two life changes that conspire to keep me posting a bit less; indeed, the two changes keep doing so, and due to the nice perks of my new job, I also got a third life change: I've started working out. So that also keeps me a bit occupied, but I think it might be good for the mental faculties in the long run and thus probably will be beneficial for my creativity as well.

    However, what I really wanted to mention - and this is a thing I intended to do way back but forgot about in all the every day hassle - is the instagram account of one of the life changes. For readers who are so inclined, meet Oswald the tibbie.

    Currently, I am really thinking a lot about my main big conlangs, and this is also reducing the posting frequency significantly. Trying to figure out how to make Bryatesle, Sargaĺk and Dairwueh descend from a single proto-language – and the same for Ŋʒädär and Ćwarmin - does take quite an effort, and developing them all simultaneously also takes some thinking.

    Finally, a personal project I've been doing for a while, and which I intend to make into a full-fledged, uh, thing, is my microtonal pitch perception and theory exercise webapp. Currently it is in an alpha stage, and the sound only works on firefox and edge (maybe safari?). Future features will be:
    • persistent states (i.e. it will remember where you left)
    • better sound that also works in chrome
    • a better menu system
    • a login system
    • the app will gather stats about progress in order maybe to be able to improve the exercises to have a better effect?
    • achievements
    • more content, esp. with regards to chord progressions
    • Just Intonation, well-temperaments, more equal temperaments
      • Just Intonation will almost necessitate some type of hexagonal key layout as an option in addition to the piano-based layouts
    • some generative content
    • some ability for the users to generate their own exercises
    • The basic engine also seems rather well-suited for some kind of 'microtonal scale and chord encyclopedia' type of use.
    I figure the microtonal pitch perception exercise thing may be of some interest to conworlders. However, I am also interested in hearing feedback! Known issues at the time are:
    • sound engine timing
    • sound quality in general
    • navigability
    So, don't complain about those quite yet ...  they're under work.

      Nuvuza Tani 1

      Wednesday, May 22nd, 2019

      Text and Translation

      Nuvu berenen kumoza zose tanise. Sama basa sonose, sama karu vususe. Ŋono alaza yendanen nikevas saŋiyinda samas etede piŋimeyi, pezes sara kodu, venendanen saŋena. Yendanen nikevas saŋiyihi, saya namanen ŋiri kegevemiyizeza namas zeninoheza samas delino. Goleza nara kumu saŋiye, saya kuŋinen zase ŋiri kegeveme. Goleza venendanen saŋiyinda sanda laka azis lenese. Kozos ŋono pobomoza ŋono pideza ŋono pereteza ŋono muroza saka.

      This story is one which is about a man named Nuvu. He has a bad head and a rough tongue. Through more time spent in the vicinity of people he is filled with pain, so he goes away and lives with nobody. If he continues to stay near people, he thinks that they will expect that he will continue to make work with them. For a long time he lives as a solitary man, and he works as he wanted. After a long time living with nobody, there is a pile outside his hut. In there he has many spears, many baskets, many knives, and many mats.

      Interlinear and Explanation

      Nuvu berenen kumoza zose tanise.

      Nuvu
      nuvu
      Nuvu
      berenen
      bere=nen
      name=COM
      kumoza
      kumu=za
      man=PATH
      zose
      zo=se
      SGin=STAY
      tanise
      tani=se
      story=STAY
      The story is one which is about a man named Nuvu.

      Sama basa sonose, sama karu vususe.

      sama
      sama
      3SG.RA
      basa
      basa
      bad
      sonose
      sono=se
      head=STAY
      sama
      sama
      3SG.RA
      karu
      karu
      rough
      vususe
      vusu=se
      tongue=STAY
      He has a bad head and a rough tongue.

      Ŋono alaza yendanen nikevas saŋiyinda samas etede piŋimeyi, pezes sara kodu, venendanen saŋena.

      ŋono
      ŋono
      more
      alaza
      ala=za
      time=PATH
      yendanen
      yenda=nen
      people=COM
      nikevas
      nikeva=s
      vicinity=LOC
      saŋiyinda
      sa=ŋi=yi=nda
      3SG.RA=MOVE=CONT=SRC
      samas
      sama=s
      3SG.RA=LOC
      etede
      etede
      full
      piŋimeyi
      piŋi=me=yi
      pain=IN=CONT
      pezes
      pezi=s
      away=LOC
      sara
      sa=ra
      3SG.RA=GO
      kodu
      kodu
      so
      venendanen
      venenda=nen
      nobody=COM
      saŋena
      sa=ŋi=na
      3SG.RA=MOVE=START
      Through more time spent in the vicinity of people he is filled with pain, so he goes away and lives with nobody.

      Someday I am going to figure out why some time phrases take =s and some take =za. I know there is a reason, I am simply not quite sure how to explain it.

      Yendanen nikevas saŋiyihi, saya namanen ŋiri kegevemiyizeza namas zeninoheza samas delino.

      yendanen
      yenda=nen
      people=COM
      nikevas
      nikeva=s
      vicinity=LOC
      saŋiyihi
      sa=ŋi=yi=hi
      3SG.RA=MOVE=CONT=POT
      saya
      sa=ya
      3SG.RA=CAUS
      namanen
      nama=nen
      3PLra=COM
      ŋiri
      ŋiri
      some
      kegevemiyizeza
      kegeve=mi=yi=zi=za
      work=IN=CONT=FUT=PATH
      namas
      nama=s
      3PLra=LOC
      zeninoheza
      zeni=no=hi=za
      expectation=COME=POT=PATH
      samas
      sama=s
      3SG.RA=LOC
      delino
      deli=no
      idea=COME
      If he continues to stay near people, he thinks that they will expect that he will continue to make work with them.

      Goleza nara kumu saŋiye, saya kuŋinen zase ŋiri kegeveme.

      goleza
      goli=za
      long.time=PATH
      nara
      nara
      one
      kumu
      kumu
      man
      saŋiye
      sa=ŋi=yi
      3SG.RA=MOVE=CONT
      saya
      sa=ya
      3SG.RA=CAUS
      kuŋinen
      kuŋi=nen
      desire=COM
      zase
      za=se
      3PL.IN=STAY
      ŋiri
      ŋiri
      some
      kegeveme
      kegeve=me
      work=IN
      For a long time he lives as a solitary man, and he works as he wanted.

      Goleza venendanen saŋiyinda sanda laka azis lenese.

      goleza
      goli=za
      long.time=PATH
      venendanen
      venenda=nen
      nobody=COM
      saŋiyinda
      sa=ŋi=yi=nda
      3SG.RA=MOVE=CONT=SRC
      sanda
      sa=nda
      3SG.RA=SRC
      laka
      laka
      hut
      azis
      azi=s
      outside=LOC
      lenese
      lene=se
      pile=STAY
      After a long time living with nobody, there is a pile outside his hut.

      Kozos ŋono pobomoza ŋono pideza ŋono pereteza ŋono muroza saka.

      kozos
      kozo=s
      here=LOC
      ŋono
      ŋono
      many
      pobomoza
      pobomo=za
      spear=PATH
      ŋono
      ŋono
      many
      pideza
      pidi=za
      basket=PATH
      ŋono
      ŋono
      many
      pereteza
      perete=za
      knife=PATH
      ŋono
      ŋono
      many
      muroza
      muru=za
      mat=PATH
      saka
      sa=ka
      3SG.RA=TOUCH
      In there he has many spears, many baskets, many knives, and many mats.

      Linda Poboto, Part 4

      Monday, May 20th, 2019

      And now the conclusion of the story…

      Text and Translation

      Saya evi, “Ŋaya kere ebes linda laki ira.” Naya kere ebes liye ira. Naya liye tene satanda pezes garanen piŋera. Yozonda erenara, naya zosos yereme.

      Besariya marodo tonos liye ira. Maras lira, muros dahidahi liŋi, lidurunulona. Pobotonen rehela lipena.

      He says, “Take my daughter to the sacred pool.” They take me to the sacred pool. They wash the pain from all of my body. The spirits go from there and play elsewhere.

      Uncle sets me on the road to home. I go home, I am lying down on the mat, and my eyes open. I begin to not be sick afterwards.

      Interlinear and Explanation

      Saya evi, “Ŋaya kere ebes linda laki ira.”

      saya
      sa=ya
      3SGra=CAUS
      evi
      e=vi
      3PLin=OUT
      ŋaya
      ŋa=ya
      2PL=CAUS
      kere
      kere
      sacred
      ebes
      ebe=s
      pool=LOC
      linda
      li=nda
      1SG=SRC
      laki
      laki
      daughter
      ira
      i=ra
      3SGan=GO
      He says, “Take my daughter to the sacred pool.”

      Naya kere ebes liye ira.

      naya
      na=ya
      3PLan=CAUS
      kere
      kere
      sacred
      ebes
      ebe=s
      pool=LOC
      liye
      liye
      1SG
      ira
      i=ra
      3SGan=GO
      They take me to the sacred pool.

      Naya liye tene satanda pezes garanen piŋera.

      naya
      na=ya
      3PLra=CAUS
      liye
      liye
      1SG
      tene
      tene
      all
      satanda
      sata=nda
      body=SRC
      pezes
      pezi=s
      away=LOC
      garanen
      gara=nen
      water=COM
      piŋera
      piŋi=ra
      pain=GO
      They wash the pain from all of my body.

      Or, they made the pain go with water from all of my body.

      Yozonda erenara, naya zosos yereme.

      yozonda
      yozo=nda
      there=SRC
      erenara
      erena=ra
      spirits=GO
      naya
      na=ya
      3PLra=CAUS
      zosos
      zoso=s
      somewhere=LOC
      yereme
      yere=me
      game=IN
      The spirits go from there and play elsewhere.

      Besariya marodo tonos liye ira.

      besariya
      besari=ya
      great-uncle=CAUS
      marodo
      mara=du
      home=GOAL
      tonos
      tono=s
      road=LOC
      liye
      liye
      1SG
      ira
      i=ra
      3SGan=GO
      Uncle sets me on the road to home.

      Maras lira, muros dahidahi liŋi, lidurunulona.

      maras
      mara=s
      home=LOC
      lira
      li=ra
      1SG=GO
      muros
      muru=s
      mat=LOC
      dahidahi
      dahidahi
      lying.down
      liŋi
      li=ŋi
      1SG=MOVE
      lidurunulona
      li=durunu=lo=na
      1SG=eyes=UP=START
      I go home, I am lying down on the mat, and my eyes open.

      My eyes open, or I wake up. And eyes is in the dual, too.

      Pobotonen rehela lipena.

      pobotonen
      poboto=nen
      sickness=COM
      rehela
      rehela
      afterwards
      lipena
      li=pe=na
      1SG=FAIL=START
      I begin to not be sick afterwards.

      Or, I begin to fail to be with sickness afterwards.

      Linda Poboto, Part 3

      Friday, May 17th, 2019

      Text and Translation

      Lirunos linda besarino aŋaka. Linda tili arenda tili bese saŋi. Lidu luguradu sano. Erenaza saka, liyenen yeremeto.

      Saya nadu evi, “Linda laki koyo yeleŋe. Samas dimidimi yakato! Sadu gehevanen yaŋi!” Liyes erena dimidimi nakato aŋaka.

      And then I see my uncle. He is my late grandmother’s uncle. He comes to help me. He grasps the spirits and the game with me stops.

      He says to them, “This person is my daughter. Stop hitting her! Be good to her!” And then the spirits stop hitting me.

      Interlinear and Explanation

      Lirunos linda besarino aŋaka.

      lirunos
      li=runu=s
      1SG=eye=LOC
      linda
      li=nda
      1SG=SRC
      besarino
      besari=no
      great-uncle=COME
      aŋaka
      aŋaka
      and.then
      And then I see my uncle.

      Technically, besari is mother’s mother’s brother.

      Linda tili arenda tili bese saŋi.

      linda
      li=nda
      1SG=SRC
      tili
      tili
      past
      arenda
      ari=nda
      grandmother=SRC
      tili
      tili
      past
      bese
      bese
      uncle
      saŋi
      sa=ŋi
      3SGra=MOVE
      He is my late grandmother’s uncle.

      Technically ari is mother’s mother’s and bese is mother’s brother. And the adjective tili, last seen modifying the noun lono ‘day’, can also modify kinship terms.

      Lidu luguradu sano.

      lidu
      li=du
      1SG=GOAL
      luguradu
      lugu=ra=du
      help=GO=GOAL
      sano
      sa=no
      3SGra=COME
      He comes to help me.

      Erenaza saka, liyenen yeremeto.

      erenaza
      erena=za
      spirits=PATH
      saka
      sa=ka
      3SGra=TOUCH
      liyenen
      liye=nen
      1SG=COM
      yeremeto
      yere=me=to
      game=IN=STOP
      He grasps the spirits and the game with me stops.

      Saya nadu evi, “Linda laki koyo yeleŋe.

      saya
      sa=ya
      3SGra=CAUS
      nadu
      na=du
      3PLra=GOAL
      evi
      e=vi
      3PLin=OUT
      linda
      li=nda
      1SG=SRC
      laki
      laki
      daughter
      koyo
      koyo
      this
      yeleŋe
      yele=ŋi
      person=MOVE
      He says to them, “This person is my daughter.

      Technically, laki is a woman’s daughter or a man’s sister’s daughter.

      Samas dimidimi yakato!

      samas
      sama=s
      3SGra=LOC
      dimidimi
      dimidimi
      with.force
      yakato
      ya=ka=to
      3PLan=TOUCH=STOP
      Stop hitting her!

      Uncle does not use indirect, polite commands. He is direct, using the non-rational animate pronouns to convey an imperative.

      Sadu gehevanen yaŋi!”

      sadu
      sa=du
      3SGra=GOAL
      gehevanen
      geheva=nen
      goodness=COM
      yaŋi
      ya=ŋi
      3PLan=MOVE
      Be good to her!”

      Liyes erena dimidimi nakato aŋaka.

      liyes
      liye=s
      1SG=LOC
      erena
      erena
      spirits
      dimidimi
      dimidimi
      with.force
      nakato
      na=ka=to
      3PLra=TOUCH=STOP
      aŋaka.
      aŋaka
      and.then
      And then the spirits stop hitting me.

      The conclusion will post on Monday. Have a good weekend!

      Linda Poboto, Part 2

      Wednesday, May 15th, 2019

      Text and Translation

      Naya kureza kideza liye ira. Liye tene satas dimidimi eka. Liye tene satas piŋino, govogovo bavasano.

      Liya nadu evi, “Ŋaŋitohi. Govogovo koyonen ŋaŋitohi. Lidu gehevanen ŋaŋinahi.” Linda sorodo erena sarape baŋibaŋi.

      They take me across thorns and rocks. They (the thorns and rocks) hit all of my body. I feel pain on all of my body and all kinds of bad.

      I say to them, “You could stop. You could stop doing all these kinds of things. You could start to be good to me.” But the spirits do not listen to my words.

      Interlinear and Explanation

      Naya kureza kideza liye ira.

      naya
      na=ya
      3PLra=CAUS
      kureza
      kuri=za
      thorn=PATH
      kideza
      kidi=za
      rock=PATH
      liye
      liye
      1SG
      ira
      i=ra
      3SGan=GO
      They take me across thorns and rocks.

      Or, I am made to go (non-volitionally) by them across thorns and rocks.

      Liye tene satas dimidimi eka.

      liye
      liye
      1SG
      tene
      tene
      all
      satas
      sata=s
      body=LOC
      dimidimi
      dimidimi
      with.force
      eka
      e=ka
      3PLin=TOUCH
      They (the thorns and rocks) hit all of my body.

      Liye tene satas piŋino, govogovo bavasano.

      liye
      liye
      1SG
      tene
      tene
      all
      satas
      sata=s
      body=LOC
      piŋino
      piŋi=no
      pain=COME
      govogovo
      govogovo
      all.kinds
      bavasano
      bavasa=no
      badness=COME
      I feel pain on all of my body and all kinds of bad.

      Here’s another pair: basa ‘bad’ and bavasa ‘badness’.

      Liya nadu evi, “Ŋaŋitohi.

      liya
      li=ya
      1SG=CAUS
      nadu
      na=du
      3PLra=GOAL
      evi
      e=vi
      3PLin=OUT
      ŋaŋitohi
      ŋa=ŋi=to=hi
      2PL=MOVE=STOP=POT
      I say to them, “You could stop.

      Our narrator is being polite and using indirect or polite commands here and in the following sentences.

      Govogovo koyonen ŋaŋitohi.

      govogovo
      govogovo
      all.kinds
      koyonen
      koyo=nen
      this=COM
      ŋaŋitohi.
      ŋa=ŋi=to=hi
      2PL=MOVE=STOP=POT
      You could stop doing all these kinds of things.

      Lidu gehevanen ŋaŋinahi.”

      lidu
      li=du
      1SG=GOAL
      gehevanen
      geheva=nen
      goodness=COM
      ŋaŋinahi
      ŋa=ŋi=na=hi
      2PL=MOVE=START=POT
      You could start to be good to me.”

      Here we have the noun geheva formed from the adjective gehe and the nominalizer -va. Mostly because the partially reduplicated form of gehe would be gehehe and that just didn’t sound right.

      Linda sorodo erena sarape baŋibaŋi.

      linda
      li=nda
      1SG=SRC
      sorodo
      soro=du
      word=GOAL
      erena
      erena
      spirits
      sarape
      sara=pe
      ear=FAIL
      baŋibaŋi
      baŋibaŋi
      unexpected
      But the spirits do not listen to my words.

      Generally one hears something with the construction A sara=s X=no. But one can listen for something, too, with X=du A sara=ra. This works for other senses as well.

      Linda Poboto Part 1

      Monday, May 13th, 2019

      Text and Translation

      Ŋasaras linda pobotoza zisirinohe. Ŋono poto liŋi, yatayatavadu lira. Poto liŋiye, muros dahidahi liŋi, morono.

      Moronen muros dahidahi liŋiye, uri erenano. Liyeza naka, liyenen yiri buros nara. Koyo erenaya yiri erenanen yereme. Erenaya keruvelime. Naya ŋarunos ŋono pezes ebeno, naya ŋarunos yozos tileya ŋarahidu hape aŋaka.

      You may have heard news of my sickness. I was very sick, almost to death. While I was sick, I lay on the mat, and a dream came.

      With the dream, while I am lying on the mat, the wind spirits come. They grasp me and take me to the mouth of a dry wash. These spirits play with the dry wash spirits. The dry wash spirits create dust devils. They make a distant pool of water appear to you and then before you can reach it they make it fail to appear.

      Interlinear and Explanation

      Ŋasaras linda pobotoza zisirinohe.

      ŋasaras
      ŋa=sara=s
      2PL=ear=LOC
      linda
      li=nda
      1SG=SRC
      pobotoza
      poboto=za
      sickness=PATH
      zisirinohe
      zisiri=no=hi
      news=COME=POT
      You may have heard news of my sickness.

      Ŋono poto liŋi, yatayatavadu lira.

      ŋono
      ŋono
      much
      poto
      poto
      sick
      liŋi
      li=ŋi
      1SG=MOVE
      yatayatavadu
      yatayatava=du
      death=GOAL
      lira
      li=ra
      1SG=GO
      I was very sick, almost to death.

      Note that poto is an adjective and poboto is a derived noun. A similar pair was encountered before: zeye ‘dark’ and zeseye ‘darkness’. Also, =du marks an unattained destination, so somewhere on the path to death. Speaking of death, yalata is the adjective ‘dying’ and yatayata is the adjective ‘dead’, and death is formed from the latter by adding the nominalizing suffix -va. The word yata no longer exists.

      Poto liŋiye, muros dahidahi liŋi, morono.

      poto
      poto
      sick
      liŋiye
      li=ŋi=yi
      1SG=MOVE=CONT
      muros
      muru=s
      mat=LOC
      dahidahi
      dahidahi
      lying.down
      liŋi
      li=ŋi
      1SG=MOVE
      morono
      moro=no
      dream=COME
      While I was sick, I lay on the mat, and a dream came.

      Moronen muros dahidahi liŋiye, uri erenano.

      moronen
      moro=nen
      dream=COM
      muros
      muru=s
      mat=LOC
      dahidahi
      dahidahi
      lying.down
      liŋiye
      li=ŋi=yi
      1SG=MOVE=CONT
      uri
      uri
      wind
      erenano
      erena=no
      spirits=COME
      With the dream, while I am lying on the mat, the wind spirits come.

      I guess N N compound phrases are allowed. Usually N N is whole part, and I suppose this compound could be read that way, too—the wind’s spirits. Or maybe it is only whole part when the part is obviously a part.

      Liyeza naka, liyenen yiri buros nara.

      liyeza
      liye=za
      1SG=PATH
      naka
      na=ka
      3PLra=TOUCH
      liyenen
      liye=nen
      1SG=COM
      yiri
      yiri
      dry.wash
      buros
      buru=s
      mouth=LOC
      nara
      na=ra
      3PLra=GO
      They grasp me and take me to the mouth of a dry wash.

      The motion particle =ka is used with =za to convey physical possession or ownership. This is an extension of its use here, as a way to convey grasping something.

      Also note that =za, =nen, and =s glom onto full pronouns only, while =nda, =du, and =ya glom onto pronominal particles.

      Koyo erenaya yiri erenanen yereme.

      koyo
      koyo
      this
      erenaya
      erena=ya
      spirits=CAUS
      yiri
      yiri
      dry.wash
      erenanen
      erena=nen
      spirits=COM
      yereme
      yere=me
      game=IN
      These spirits play with the dry wash spirits.

      Erenaya keruvelime.

      erenaya
      erena=ya
      spirits=CAUS
      keruvelime
      keruveli=me
      dust.devil=IN
      The dry wash spirits create dust devils.

      Naya ŋarunos ŋono pezes ebeno, naya ŋarunos yozos tileya ŋarahidu hape aŋaka.

      naya
      na=ya
      3PLra=CAUS
      ŋarunos
      ŋa=runu=s
      2PL=eye=LOC
      ŋono
      ŋono
      much
      pezes
      pezi=s
      away=LOC
      ebeno
      ebe=no
      pool=COME
      naya
      na=ya
      3PLra=CAUS
      ŋarunos
      ŋa=runu=s
      2PL=eyes=LOC
      yozos
      yozo=s
      there=LOC
      tileya
      tileya
      before
      ŋarahidu
      ŋa=ra=hi=du
      2PL=GO=POT=GOAL
      hape
      ha=pe
      3SGin=FAIL
      aŋaka.
      aŋaka
      and.then
      They make a distant pool of water appear to you and then before you can go there they make it fail to appear.

      Can you think of a better way to explain mirages?

      The South Wind and the Sun 2

      Friday, May 10th, 2019

      The rest of the sentences from the South Wind and the Sun…

      Lohoya kehimena, saselevena.

      lohoya
      loho=ya
      sun=CAUS
      kehimena
      kehi=me=na
      task=IN=START
      saselevena
      sa=sele=vi=na
      3SGra=light=OUT=START
      The sun started the task, they started to emit light.

      Light is a body part of the sun, at least in this case.

      Sama ŋono seleve, sama ŋono kalave, mede banas dahidahi keneŋiyi baŋibaŋi.

      sama
      sama
      3SGra
      ŋono
      ŋono
      more
      seleve
      sele=vi
      light=OUT
      sama
      sama
      3SGra
      ŋono
      ŋono
      more
      kalave
      kala=vi
      heat=OUT
      mede
      mede
      tree
      banas
      bana=s
      foot=LOC
      dahidahi
      dahidahi
      lying.down
      keneŋiyi
      kene=ŋi=yi
      woman=MOVE=CONT
      baŋibaŋi
      baŋibaŋi
      unexpectedly
      They emitted more light, they emitted more heat, and still the woman was lying down under the tree.

      Light and heat are body parts of the sun here, and modified by an adjective. The adjective comes between the possessor and the body part. The final clause has =yi for a continuing situation and baŋibaŋi to express that this situation is contrary to expectation.

      Lohoya kehimeto, elekenda ureya kehimena aŋaka, saderelevina.

      lohoya
      loho=ya
      sun=CAUS
      kehimeto
      kehi=me=to
      task=IN=STOP
      elekenda
      eleke=nda
      south=SRC
      ureya
      uri=ya
      wind=CAUS
      kehimena
      kehi=me=na
      task=IN=START
      aŋaka
      aŋaka
      and.then
      saderelevina
      sa=derele=vi=na
      3SGra=breath=OUT=START
      The sun stopped, and the south wind started, they started to emit breath (blow).

      Breath is a partially reduplicated noun, but the unreduplicated noun is not in the current lexicon. It is cognate with Kēlen rēl ‘breath’.

      Saya elekenda sakanda mede sonos oloŋira, pezes kalara.

      saya
      sa=ya
      3SGra=CAUS
      elekenda
      eleke=nda
      south=SRC
      sakanda
      saka=nda
      mountain=SRC
      mede
      mede
      tree
      sonos
      sono=s
      head=LOC
      oloŋira
      oloŋi=ra
      cloud=GO
      pezes
      pezi=s
      away=LOC
      kalara
      kala=ra
      heat=GO
      He made clouds go from the southern mountains to over the tree, and made the heat go away.

      Lamana layisena, lamana tene selese, zeseyelo.

      lamana
      lamana
      hidden
      layisena
      layi=se=na
      sky=STAY=START
      lamana
      lamana
      hidden
      tene
      tene
      all
      selese
      sele=se
      light=STAY
      zeseyelo
      zeseye=lo
      darkness=UP
      The sky started to be hidden, all the light was hidden, and the darkness increased.

      Earlier there was a conjunction aŋaka glossed as “and then”. It is generally only used for emphasis. Sequence of clauses is usually assumed. The motion particle=lo UP is used here to convey an increase in an entity made of water, air, light, or sound. =ta DOWN can be used to convey a decrease.

      Ŋono zeye layisenahiza kenes delino.

      ŋono
      ŋono
      more
      zeye
      zeye
      dark
      layisenahiza
      layi=se=na=hi=za
      sky=STAY=START=POT=PATH
      kenes
      kene=s
      woman=LOC
      delino
      deli=no
      idea=COME
      The woman thought that the sky would start to become darker.

      An idea came to the woman, and =za marks the idea: ŋono zeye layisenahi or more dark the sky potentially starts to be.

      Mede bananda pezes kenera, maras sara.

      mede
      mede
      tree
      bananda
      bana=nda
      foot=SRC
      pezes
      pezi=s
      away=LOC
      kenera
      kene=ra
      woman=GO
      maras
      mara=s
      home=LOC
      sara
      sa=ra
      3SGra=GO
      The woman went away from under the tree and went home.

      Nenenda ŋono takaka elekenda uriŋe kodu.

      nenenda
      nene=nda
      pair=SRC
      ŋono
      ŋono
      more
      takaka
      takaka
      strong
      elekenda
      eleke=nda
      south=SRC
      uriŋe
      uri=ŋi
      wind=MOVE
      kodu
      kodu
      so
      And so the south wind is the stronger of the pair.

      Next week I start a longer story in four parts…

      Nominative Plural Bryatesle

      Thursday, May 9th, 2019
      Plural Nominatives

      Finally, the one remaining case form in Bryatesle. We have seen some patterns in the previous post about the nominative, and some of these provide us with the nominative plural. Going through the classes schematically, we get:
      singular syncretisms implying parallel syncretisms

      nom sg
      voc sgnom pl voc pl
      for one noun in this wider class, knavum, there is a dat pl syncretism, but this is basically the only exception to the rule. Tunsïm is a different exception, with even more syncretism thrown in.
      nom sg excl sg(nom pl (excl pl or acc pl))
      nom sg acc sg → nom pl acc pl
      nom sg
      dat sg → nom pl dat pl

      For these, do not read AB as a commutative thing, read it rather as 'A is formed using the same morphological suffix as B'. I opted for the symbol '≡' in order that the reader realize that there is some non-standard notations in place. It is also important to note that these are implications, not equivalences, A → B does not imply B → A.*

      * Talking about implications not implying something might feel a bit weird if you are not used to reasoning about logic. "A implies B" is essentially the same as "If A is true, then also B will be true", but says nothing about B in case A is not true - if "A implies B" holds and "A is false" holds, we do not know whether B is true or not, or in this rather prescriptive situation, the truth of B cannot be ascertained from the given information.
      singular-plural syncretism
      Some neuter nouns have a singular-plural nominative syncretism. With the exception of nayga (pine cone), these end in consonants. Thus we can't really say that there exists any specific nominative (singular or plural) suffix for these nouns.

      REGULAR NOUNS
      Now that the weirder nouns have been dealt with, we can look at the vanilla regulars. There is some level of "mild" irregularity going on even here, though. Beyond these, some loans from Dairwueh keep their plural nominative for about a generation or two, at least among the intelligentsia. The situation is not entirely similar to Latin in English, since the two languages are in a rather different relationship: both are quite likely at any given moment to be the dominant language of the area.
      regular masculine plurals
      A large number of masculine nouns have, in the singular, nominative suffixes in free variation. In the standard language, this situation does not obtain in the plural, but some tendencies exist that connect the singular and plural, along the following lines, where the higher up a rule is, the higher it ranks (i.e., a noun for which the suffixes {-a, -i} appear in the singular, the {-a, ...}-rule will be applied.
      {-u, -y} → -yri (tho' some -iri or -ere also appear)
      {-a, ...} → -ere
      {-i, ...} → -ini, sometimes -uny (mainly after velars)
      {-e, ...} → -ini, sometimes -uny (mainly after velars)
      Nouns ending in a consonant tend to have -ere as plural nominative suffix as well.

      In dialects, simplified systems exist (-iri or -ere for all), as well as systems with multiple permissible allomorphs (often in less elaborate systems than in the singular). Common consonants in the masculine plural suffixes are -r, -n, -l and -z. Atnel Bryatesle, however, has masculine (and neuter) plural suffixes with -k or -t in them, likely originating with a different particle in PBD than the particles giving rise to the standard set of suffixes.
      regular feminine plurals

      The most common regular plural feminine nominative suffixes are
      -a, -(V)l, -(V)r/-r(V)
      The feminine nouns ending in consonants all are somewhat irregular:
      ib, ebel (eye)
      sud, sadal (hub)
      tsyl, tsular (feather) (dissimilation of -al following -r-)
      The feminine plural nominative morpheme depends on the singular nominative morpheme according to this pattern:
      -a → -al (dissimilated as -ar)
      -i → -ir (dissimilated as -il)
      -y → -yr (dissimilated as -il)
      -e → -er (after a stem ending in -l, comes out as -ur)
      mxera , mxeral ointment
      nanmi, nanmir hook
      tapsy, tapsyr birthmark
      mekse, mekser mare
      xable, xablur spear
       Occasional exceptions exist; some former hiatus situations have come out as follows:
      ...ai, ...ail → ...a, ...il
      ...
      ya, ...yal → ...e, ...al
      ...
      ue, ...uel → ...ve, ...ul
      Some historical examples of these have been hit by analogy and rendered similar to the regular plurals, but some regular plurals have also hit and been turned into examples of these patterns.
      Examples (with + marking examples that have appeared due to analogy):
      gara, garil (bread roll)
      rame, ramal (standard-sized wooden container for salted fish)
      +nime, nimal (a flute)
      sepe, sepul (grass turf)
      gyle, gylar (chopsticks)
      +rile, rilar (small drinking vessel)

      regular neuter plurals
      Regular neuter nouns form their plural by suffixes -veku or -uku. If the final syllable of the stem carries stress (or secondary stress), -uku is used. Otherwise, -veku is used. (This is not entirely true, the truth is "if the final syllable carried stress before the -ve- → -u- reduction in unstressed syllables, it is -uku", however, the previously stated rule of thumb will almost always be accurate, but does account for some dialectal differences. This rule has one absolute consequence, however: monosyllabic neuters always have plurals with -uku. A secondary development that has a similar outcome is -veku after consonant clusters becoming -uku. Here, ' marks stress, appearing before the stressed syllable)
      ran-uku wool socks
      min-uku fox pelts
      tert-uku pebbles
      'baset-veku mushrooms
      ti'rik-uku straws
      'tegarks-uku branches
      a'gixn-uku riches