Archive for May, 2019

Linda Poboto, Part 4

Monday, May 20th, 2019

And now the conclusion of the story…

Text and Translation

Saya evi, “Ŋaya kere ebes linda laki ira.” Naya kere ebes liye ira. Naya liye tene satanda pezes garanen piŋera. Yozonda erenara, naya zosos yereme.

Besariya marodo tonos liye ira. Maras lira, muros dahidahi liŋi, lidurunulona. Pobotonen rehela lipena.

He says, “Take my daughter to the sacred pool.” They take me to the sacred pool. They wash the pain from all of my body. The spirits go from there and play elsewhere.

Uncle sets me on the road to home. I go home, I am lying down on the mat, and my eyes open. I begin to not be sick afterwards.

Interlinear and Explanation

Saya evi, “Ŋaya kere ebes linda laki ira.”

saya
sa=ya
3SGra=CAUS
evi
e=vi
3PLin=OUT
ŋaya
ŋa=ya
2PL=CAUS
kere
kere
sacred
ebes
ebe=s
pool=LOC
linda
li=nda
1SG=SRC
laki
laki
daughter
ira
i=ra
3SGan=GO
He says, “Take my daughter to the sacred pool.”

Naya kere ebes liye ira.

naya
na=ya
3PLan=CAUS
kere
kere
sacred
ebes
ebe=s
pool=LOC
liye
liye
1SG
ira
i=ra
3SGan=GO
They take me to the sacred pool.

Naya liye tene satanda pezes garanen piŋera.

naya
na=ya
3PLra=CAUS
liye
liye
1SG
tene
tene
all
satanda
sata=nda
body=SRC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
garanen
gara=nen
water=COM
piŋera
piŋi=ra
pain=GO
They wash the pain from all of my body.

Or, they made the pain go with water from all of my body.

Yozonda erenara, naya zosos yereme.

yozonda
yozo=nda
there=SRC
erenara
erena=ra
spirits=GO
naya
na=ya
3PLra=CAUS
zosos
zoso=s
somewhere=LOC
yereme
yere=me
game=IN
The spirits go from there and play elsewhere.

Besariya marodo tonos liye ira.

besariya
besari=ya
great-uncle=CAUS
marodo
mara=du
home=GOAL
tonos
tono=s
road=LOC
liye
liye
1SG
ira
i=ra
3SGan=GO
Uncle sets me on the road to home.

Maras lira, muros dahidahi liŋi, lidurunulona.

maras
mara=s
home=LOC
lira
li=ra
1SG=GO
muros
muru=s
mat=LOC
dahidahi
dahidahi
lying.down
liŋi
li=ŋi
1SG=MOVE
lidurunulona
li=durunu=lo=na
1SG=eyes=UP=START
I go home, I am lying down on the mat, and my eyes open.

My eyes open, or I wake up. And eyes is in the dual, too.

Pobotonen rehela lipena.

pobotonen
poboto=nen
sickness=COM
rehela
rehela
afterwards
lipena
li=pe=na
1SG=FAIL=START
I begin to not be sick afterwards.

Or, I begin to fail to be with sickness afterwards.

Linda Poboto, Part 3

Friday, May 17th, 2019

Text and Translation

Lirunos linda besarino aŋaka. Linda tili arenda tili bese saŋi. Lidu luguradu sano. Erenaza saka, liyenen yeremeto.

Saya nadu evi, “Linda laki koyo yeleŋe. Samas dimidimi yakato! Sadu gehevanen yaŋi!” Liyes erena dimidimi nakato aŋaka.

And then I see my uncle. He is my late grandmother’s uncle. He comes to help me. He grasps the spirits and the game with me stops.

He says to them, “This person is my daughter. Stop hitting her! Be good to her!” And then the spirits stop hitting me.

Interlinear and Explanation

Lirunos linda besarino aŋaka.

lirunos
li=runu=s
1SG=eye=LOC
linda
li=nda
1SG=SRC
besarino
besari=no
great-uncle=COME
aŋaka
aŋaka
and.then
And then I see my uncle.

Technically, besari is mother’s mother’s brother.

Linda tili arenda tili bese saŋi.

linda
li=nda
1SG=SRC
tili
tili
past
arenda
ari=nda
grandmother=SRC
tili
tili
past
bese
bese
uncle
saŋi
sa=ŋi
3SGra=MOVE
He is my late grandmother’s uncle.

Technically ari is mother’s mother’s and bese is mother’s brother. And the adjective tili, last seen modifying the noun lono ‘day’, can also modify kinship terms.

Lidu luguradu sano.

lidu
li=du
1SG=GOAL
luguradu
lugu=ra=du
help=GO=GOAL
sano
sa=no
3SGra=COME
He comes to help me.

Erenaza saka, liyenen yeremeto.

erenaza
erena=za
spirits=PATH
saka
sa=ka
3SGra=TOUCH
liyenen
liye=nen
1SG=COM
yeremeto
yere=me=to
game=IN=STOP
He grasps the spirits and the game with me stops.

Saya nadu evi, “Linda laki koyo yeleŋe.

saya
sa=ya
3SGra=CAUS
nadu
na=du
3PLra=GOAL
evi
e=vi
3PLin=OUT
linda
li=nda
1SG=SRC
laki
laki
daughter
koyo
koyo
this
yeleŋe
yele=ŋi
person=MOVE
He says to them, “This person is my daughter.

Technically, laki is a woman’s daughter or a man’s sister’s daughter.

Samas dimidimi yakato!

samas
sama=s
3SGra=LOC
dimidimi
dimidimi
with.force
yakato
ya=ka=to
3PLan=TOUCH=STOP
Stop hitting her!

Uncle does not use indirect, polite commands. He is direct, using the non-rational animate pronouns to convey an imperative.

Sadu gehevanen yaŋi!”

sadu
sa=du
3SGra=GOAL
gehevanen
geheva=nen
goodness=COM
yaŋi
ya=ŋi
3PLan=MOVE
Be good to her!”

Liyes erena dimidimi nakato aŋaka.

liyes
liye=s
1SG=LOC
erena
erena
spirits
dimidimi
dimidimi
with.force
nakato
na=ka=to
3PLra=TOUCH=STOP
aŋaka.
aŋaka
and.then
And then the spirits stop hitting me.

The conclusion will post on Monday. Have a good weekend!

Linda Poboto, Part 2

Wednesday, May 15th, 2019

Text and Translation

Naya kureza kideza liye ira. Liye tene satas dimidimi eka. Liye tene satas piŋino, govogovo bavasano.

Liya nadu evi, “Ŋaŋitohi. Govogovo koyonen ŋaŋitohi. Lidu gehevanen ŋaŋinahi.” Linda sorodo erena sarape baŋibaŋi.

They take me across thorns and rocks. They (the thorns and rocks) hit all of my body. I feel pain on all of my body and all kinds of bad.

I say to them, “You could stop. You could stop doing all these kinds of things. You could start to be good to me.” But the spirits do not listen to my words.

Interlinear and Explanation

Naya kureza kideza liye ira.

naya
na=ya
3PLra=CAUS
kureza
kuri=za
thorn=PATH
kideza
kidi=za
rock=PATH
liye
liye
1SG
ira
i=ra
3SGan=GO
They take me across thorns and rocks.

Or, I am made to go (non-volitionally) by them across thorns and rocks.

Liye tene satas dimidimi eka.

liye
liye
1SG
tene
tene
all
satas
sata=s
body=LOC
dimidimi
dimidimi
with.force
eka
e=ka
3PLin=TOUCH
They (the thorns and rocks) hit all of my body.

Liye tene satas piŋino, govogovo bavasano.

liye
liye
1SG
tene
tene
all
satas
sata=s
body=LOC
piŋino
piŋi=no
pain=COME
govogovo
govogovo
all.kinds
bavasano
bavasa=no
badness=COME
I feel pain on all of my body and all kinds of bad.

Here’s another pair: basa ‘bad’ and bavasa ‘badness’.

Liya nadu evi, “Ŋaŋitohi.

liya
li=ya
1SG=CAUS
nadu
na=du
3PLra=GOAL
evi
e=vi
3PLin=OUT
ŋaŋitohi
ŋa=ŋi=to=hi
2PL=MOVE=STOP=POT
I say to them, “You could stop.

Our narrator is being polite and using indirect or polite commands here and in the following sentences.

Govogovo koyonen ŋaŋitohi.

govogovo
govogovo
all.kinds
koyonen
koyo=nen
this=COM
ŋaŋitohi.
ŋa=ŋi=to=hi
2PL=MOVE=STOP=POT
You could stop doing all these kinds of things.

Lidu gehevanen ŋaŋinahi.”

lidu
li=du
1SG=GOAL
gehevanen
geheva=nen
goodness=COM
ŋaŋinahi
ŋa=ŋi=na=hi
2PL=MOVE=START=POT
You could start to be good to me.”

Here we have the noun geheva formed from the adjective gehe and the nominalizer -va. Mostly because the partially reduplicated form of gehe would be gehehe and that just didn’t sound right.

Linda sorodo erena sarape baŋibaŋi.

linda
li=nda
1SG=SRC
sorodo
soro=du
word=GOAL
erena
erena
spirits
sarape
sara=pe
ear=FAIL
baŋibaŋi
baŋibaŋi
unexpected
But the spirits do not listen to my words.

Generally one hears something with the construction A sara=s X=no. But one can listen for something, too, with X=du A sara=ra. This works for other senses as well.

Linda Poboto Part 1

Monday, May 13th, 2019

Text and Translation

Ŋasaras linda pobotoza zisirinohe. Ŋono poto liŋi, yatayatavadu lira. Poto liŋiye, muros dahidahi liŋi, morono.

Moronen muros dahidahi liŋiye, uri erenano. Liyeza naka, liyenen yiri buros nara. Koyo erenaya yiri erenanen yereme. Erenaya keruvelime. Naya ŋarunos ŋono pezes ebeno, naya ŋarunos yozos tileya ŋarahidu hape aŋaka.

You may have heard news of my sickness. I was very sick, almost to death. While I was sick, I lay on the mat, and a dream came.

With the dream, while I am lying on the mat, the wind spirits come. They grasp me and take me to the mouth of a dry wash. These spirits play with the dry wash spirits. The dry wash spirits create dust devils. They make a distant pool of water appear to you and then before you can reach it they make it fail to appear.

Interlinear and Explanation

Ŋasaras linda pobotoza zisirinohe.

ŋasaras
ŋa=sara=s
2PL=ear=LOC
linda
li=nda
1SG=SRC
pobotoza
poboto=za
sickness=PATH
zisirinohe
zisiri=no=hi
news=COME=POT
You may have heard news of my sickness.

Ŋono poto liŋi, yatayatavadu lira.

ŋono
ŋono
much
poto
poto
sick
liŋi
li=ŋi
1SG=MOVE
yatayatavadu
yatayatava=du
death=GOAL
lira
li=ra
1SG=GO
I was very sick, almost to death.

Note that poto is an adjective and poboto is a derived noun. A similar pair was encountered before: zeye ‘dark’ and zeseye ‘darkness’. Also, =du marks an unattained destination, so somewhere on the path to death. Speaking of death, yalata is the adjective ‘dying’ and yatayata is the adjective ‘dead’, and death is formed from the latter by adding the nominalizing suffix -va. The word yata no longer exists.

Poto liŋiye, muros dahidahi liŋi, morono.

poto
poto
sick
liŋiye
li=ŋi=yi
1SG=MOVE=CONT
muros
muru=s
mat=LOC
dahidahi
dahidahi
lying.down
liŋi
li=ŋi
1SG=MOVE
morono
moro=no
dream=COME
While I was sick, I lay on the mat, and a dream came.

Moronen muros dahidahi liŋiye, uri erenano.

moronen
moro=nen
dream=COM
muros
muru=s
mat=LOC
dahidahi
dahidahi
lying.down
liŋiye
li=ŋi=yi
1SG=MOVE=CONT
uri
uri
wind
erenano
erena=no
spirits=COME
With the dream, while I am lying on the mat, the wind spirits come.

I guess N N compound phrases are allowed. Usually N N is whole part, and I suppose this compound could be read that way, too—the wind’s spirits. Or maybe it is only whole part when the part is obviously a part.

Liyeza naka, liyenen yiri buros nara.

liyeza
liye=za
1SG=PATH
naka
na=ka
3PLra=TOUCH
liyenen
liye=nen
1SG=COM
yiri
yiri
dry.wash
buros
buru=s
mouth=LOC
nara
na=ra
3PLra=GO
They grasp me and take me to the mouth of a dry wash.

The motion particle =ka is used with =za to convey physical possession or ownership. This is an extension of its use here, as a way to convey grasping something.

Also note that =za, =nen, and =s glom onto full pronouns only, while =nda, =du, and =ya glom onto pronominal particles.

Koyo erenaya yiri erenanen yereme.

koyo
koyo
this
erenaya
erena=ya
spirits=CAUS
yiri
yiri
dry.wash
erenanen
erena=nen
spirits=COM
yereme
yere=me
game=IN
These spirits play with the dry wash spirits.

Erenaya keruvelime.

erenaya
erena=ya
spirits=CAUS
keruvelime
keruveli=me
dust.devil=IN
The dry wash spirits create dust devils.

Naya ŋarunos ŋono pezes ebeno, naya ŋarunos yozos tileya ŋarahidu hape aŋaka.

naya
na=ya
3PLra=CAUS
ŋarunos
ŋa=runu=s
2PL=eye=LOC
ŋono
ŋono
much
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
ebeno
ebe=no
pool=COME
naya
na=ya
3PLra=CAUS
ŋarunos
ŋa=runu=s
2PL=eyes=LOC
yozos
yozo=s
there=LOC
tileya
tileya
before
ŋarahidu
ŋa=ra=hi=du
2PL=GO=POT=GOAL
hape
ha=pe
3SGin=FAIL
aŋaka.
aŋaka
and.then
They make a distant pool of water appear to you and then before you can go there they make it fail to appear.

Can you think of a better way to explain mirages?

The South Wind and the Sun 2

Friday, May 10th, 2019

The rest of the sentences from the South Wind and the Sun…

Lohoya kehimena, saselevena.

lohoya
loho=ya
sun=CAUS
kehimena
kehi=me=na
task=IN=START
saselevena
sa=sele=vi=na
3SGra=light=OUT=START
The sun started the task, they started to emit light.

Light is a body part of the sun, at least in this case.

Sama ŋono seleve, sama ŋono kalave, mede banas dahidahi keneŋiyi baŋibaŋi.

sama
sama
3SGra
ŋono
ŋono
more
seleve
sele=vi
light=OUT
sama
sama
3SGra
ŋono
ŋono
more
kalave
kala=vi
heat=OUT
mede
mede
tree
banas
bana=s
foot=LOC
dahidahi
dahidahi
lying.down
keneŋiyi
kene=ŋi=yi
woman=MOVE=CONT
baŋibaŋi
baŋibaŋi
unexpectedly
They emitted more light, they emitted more heat, and still the woman was lying down under the tree.

Light and heat are body parts of the sun here, and modified by an adjective. The adjective comes between the possessor and the body part. The final clause has =yi for a continuing situation and baŋibaŋi to express that this situation is contrary to expectation.

Lohoya kehimeto, elekenda ureya kehimena aŋaka, saderelevina.

lohoya
loho=ya
sun=CAUS
kehimeto
kehi=me=to
task=IN=STOP
elekenda
eleke=nda
south=SRC
ureya
uri=ya
wind=CAUS
kehimena
kehi=me=na
task=IN=START
aŋaka
aŋaka
and.then
saderelevina
sa=derele=vi=na
3SGra=breath=OUT=START
The sun stopped, and the south wind started, they started to emit breath (blow).

Breath is a partially reduplicated noun, but the unreduplicated noun is not in the current lexicon. It is cognate with Kēlen rēl ‘breath’.

Saya elekenda sakanda mede sonos oloŋira, pezes kalara.

saya
sa=ya
3SGra=CAUS
elekenda
eleke=nda
south=SRC
sakanda
saka=nda
mountain=SRC
mede
mede
tree
sonos
sono=s
head=LOC
oloŋira
oloŋi=ra
cloud=GO
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
kalara
kala=ra
heat=GO
He made clouds go from the southern mountains to over the tree, and made the heat go away.

Lamana layisena, lamana tene selese, zeseyelo.

lamana
lamana
hidden
layisena
layi=se=na
sky=STAY=START
lamana
lamana
hidden
tene
tene
all
selese
sele=se
light=STAY
zeseyelo
zeseye=lo
darkness=UP
The sky started to be hidden, all the light was hidden, and the darkness increased.

Earlier there was a conjunction aŋaka glossed as “and then”. It is generally only used for emphasis. Sequence of clauses is usually assumed. The motion particle=lo UP is used here to convey an increase in an entity made of water, air, light, or sound. =ta DOWN can be used to convey a decrease.

Ŋono zeye layisenahiza kenes delino.

ŋono
ŋono
more
zeye
zeye
dark
layisenahiza
layi=se=na=hi=za
sky=STAY=START=POT=PATH
kenes
kene=s
woman=LOC
delino
deli=no
idea=COME
The woman thought that the sky would start to become darker.

An idea came to the woman, and =za marks the idea: ŋono zeye layisenahi or more dark the sky potentially starts to be.

Mede bananda pezes kenera, maras sara.

mede
mede
tree
bananda
bana=nda
foot=SRC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
kenera
kene=ra
woman=GO
maras
mara=s
home=LOC
sara
sa=ra
3SGra=GO
The woman went away from under the tree and went home.

Nenenda ŋono takaka elekenda uriŋe kodu.

nenenda
nene=nda
pair=SRC
ŋono
ŋono
more
takaka
takaka
strong
elekenda
eleke=nda
south=SRC
uriŋe
uri=ŋi
wind=MOVE
kodu
kodu
so
And so the south wind is the stronger of the pair.

Next week I start a longer story in four parts…

Nominative Plural Bryatesle

Thursday, May 9th, 2019
Plural Nominatives

Finally, the one remaining case form in Bryatesle. We have seen some patterns in the previous post about the nominative, and some of these provide us with the nominative plural. Going through the classes schematically, we get:
singular syncretisms implying parallel syncretisms

nom sg
voc sgnom pl voc pl
for one noun in this wider class, knavum, there is a dat pl syncretism, but this is basically the only exception to the rule. Tunsïm is a different exception, with even more syncretism thrown in.
nom sg excl sg(nom pl (excl pl or acc pl))
nom sg acc sg → nom pl acc pl
nom sg
dat sg → nom pl dat pl

For these, do not read AB as a commutative thing, read it rather as 'A is formed using the same morphological suffix as B'. I opted for the symbol '≡' in order that the reader realize that there is some non-standard notations in place. It is also important to note that these are implications, not equivalences, A → B does not imply B → A.*

* Talking about implications not implying something might feel a bit weird if you are not used to reasoning about logic. "A implies B" is essentially the same as "If A is true, then also B will be true", but says nothing about B in case A is not true - if "A implies B" holds and "A is false" holds, we do not know whether B is true or not, or in this rather prescriptive situation, the truth of B cannot be ascertained from the given information.
singular-plural syncretism
Some neuter nouns have a singular-plural nominative syncretism. With the exception of nayga (pine cone), these end in consonants. Thus we can't really say that there exists any specific nominative (singular or plural) suffix for these nouns.

REGULAR NOUNS
Now that the weirder nouns have been dealt with, we can look at the vanilla regulars. There is some level of "mild" irregularity going on even here, though. Beyond these, some loans from Dairwueh keep their plural nominative for about a generation or two, at least among the intelligentsia. The situation is not entirely similar to Latin in English, since the two languages are in a rather different relationship: both are quite likely at any given moment to be the dominant language of the area.
regular masculine plurals
A large number of masculine nouns have, in the singular, nominative suffixes in free variation. In the standard language, this situation does not obtain in the plural, but some tendencies exist that connect the singular and plural, along the following lines, where the higher up a rule is, the higher it ranks (i.e., a noun for which the suffixes {-a, -i} appear in the singular, the {-a, ...}-rule will be applied.
{-u, -y} → -yri (tho' some -iri or -ere also appear)
{-a, ...} → -ere
{-i, ...} → -ini, sometimes -uny (mainly after velars)
{-e, ...} → -ini, sometimes -uny (mainly after velars)
Nouns ending in a consonant tend to have -ere as plural nominative suffix as well.

In dialects, simplified systems exist (-iri or -ere for all), as well as systems with multiple permissible allomorphs (often in less elaborate systems than in the singular). Common consonants in the masculine plural suffixes are -r, -n, -l and -z. Atnel Bryatesle, however, has masculine (and neuter) plural suffixes with -k or -t in them, likely originating with a different particle in PBD than the particles giving rise to the standard set of suffixes.
regular feminine plurals

The most common regular plural feminine nominative suffixes are
-a, -(V)l, -(V)r/-r(V)
The feminine nouns ending in consonants all are somewhat irregular:
ib, ebel (eye)
sud, sadal (hub)
tsyl, tsular (feather) (dissimilation of -al following -r-)
The feminine plural nominative morpheme depends on the singular nominative morpheme according to this pattern:
-a → -al (dissimilated as -ar)
-i → -ir (dissimilated as -il)
-y → -yr (dissimilated as -il)
-e → -er (after a stem ending in -l, comes out as -ur)
mxera , mxeral ointment
nanmi, nanmir hook
tapsy, tapsyr birthmark
mekse, mekser mare
xable, xablur spear
 Occasional exceptions exist; some former hiatus situations have come out as follows:
...ai, ...ail → ...a, ...il
...
ya, ...yal → ...e, ...al
...
ue, ...uel → ...ve, ...ul
Some historical examples of these have been hit by analogy and rendered similar to the regular plurals, but some regular plurals have also hit and been turned into examples of these patterns.
Examples (with + marking examples that have appeared due to analogy):
gara, garil (bread roll)
rame, ramal (standard-sized wooden container for salted fish)
+nime, nimal (a flute)
sepe, sepul (grass turf)
gyle, gylar (chopsticks)
+rile, rilar (small drinking vessel)

regular neuter plurals
Regular neuter nouns form their plural by suffixes -veku or -uku. If the final syllable of the stem carries stress (or secondary stress), -uku is used. Otherwise, -veku is used. (This is not entirely true, the truth is "if the final syllable carried stress before the -ve- → -u- reduction in unstressed syllables, it is -uku", however, the previously stated rule of thumb will almost always be accurate, but does account for some dialectal differences. This rule has one absolute consequence, however: monosyllabic neuters always have plurals with -uku. A secondary development that has a similar outcome is -veku after consonant clusters becoming -uku. Here, ' marks stress, appearing before the stressed syllable)
ran-uku wool socks
min-uku fox pelts
tert-uku pebbles
'baset-veku mushrooms
ti'rik-uku straws
'tegarks-uku branches
a'gixn-uku riches

Nominative Plural Bryatesle

Thursday, May 9th, 2019
Plural Nominatives

Finally, the one remaining case form in Bryatesle. We have seen some patterns in the previous post about the nominative, and some of these provide us with the nominative plural. Going through the classes schematically, we get:
singular syncretisms implying parallel syncretisms

nom sg
voc sgnom pl voc pl
for one noun in this wider class, knavum, there is a dat pl syncretism, but this is basically the only exception to the rule. Tunsïm is a different exception, with even more syncretism thrown in.
nom sg excl sg(nom pl (excl pl or acc pl))
nom sg acc sg → nom pl acc pl
nom sg
dat sg → nom pl dat pl

For these, do not read AB as a commutative thing, read it rather as 'A is formed using the same morphological suffix as B'. I opted for the symbol '≡' in order that the reader realize that there is some non-standard notations in place. It is also important to note that these are implications, not equivalences, A → B does not imply B → A.*

* Talking about implications not implying something might feel a bit weird if you are not used to reasoning about logic. "A implies B" is essentially the same as "If A is true, then also B will be true", but says nothing about B in case A is not true - if "A implies B" holds and "A is false" holds, we do not know whether B is true or not, or in this rather prescriptive situation, the truth of B cannot be ascertained from the given information.
singular-plural syncretism
Some neuter nouns have a singular-plural nominative syncretism. With the exception of nayga (pine cone), these end in consonants. Thus we can't really say that there exists any specific nominative (singular or plural) suffix for these nouns.

REGULAR NOUNS
Now that the weirder nouns have been dealt with, we can look at the vanilla regulars. There is some level of "mild" irregularity going on even here, though. Beyond these, some loans from Dairwueh keep their plural nominative for about a generation or two, at least among the intelligentsia. The situation is not entirely similar to Latin in English, since the two languages are in a rather different relationship: both are quite likely at any given moment to be the dominant language of the area.
regular masculine plurals
A large number of masculine nouns have, in the singular, nominative suffixes in free variation. In the standard language, this situation does not obtain in the plural, but some tendencies exist that connect the singular and plural, along the following lines, where the higher up a rule is, the higher it ranks (i.e., a noun for which the suffixes {-a, -i} appear in the singular, the {-a, ...}-rule will be applied.
{-u, -y} → -yri (tho' some -iri or -ere also appear)
{-a, ...} → -ere
{-i, ...} → -ini, sometimes -uny (mainly after velars)
{-e, ...} → -ini, sometimes -uny (mainly after velars)
Nouns ending in a consonant tend to have -ere as plural nominative suffix as well.

In dialects, simplified systems exist (-iri or -ere for all), as well as systems with multiple permissible allomorphs (often in less elaborate systems than in the singular). Common consonants in the masculine plural suffixes are -r, -n, -l and -z. Atnel Bryatesle, however, has masculine (and neuter) plural suffixes with -k or -t in them, likely originating with a different particle in PBD than the particles giving rise to the standard set of suffixes.
regular feminine plurals

The most common regular plural feminine nominative suffixes are
-a, -(V)l, -(V)r/-r(V)
The feminine nouns ending in consonants all are somewhat irregular:
ib, ebel (eye)
sud, sadal (hub)
tsyl, tsular (feather) (dissimilation of -al following -r-)
The feminine plural nominative morpheme depends on the singular nominative morpheme according to this pattern:
-a → -al (dissimilated as -ar)
-i → -ir (dissimilated as -il)
-y → -yr (dissimilated as -il)
-e → -er (after a stem ending in -l, comes out as -ur)
mxera , mxeral ointment
nanmi, nanmir hook
tapsy, tapsyr birthmark
mekse, mekser mare
xable, xablur spear
 Occasional exceptions exist; some former hiatus situations have come out as follows:
...ai, ...ail → ...a, ...il
...
ya, ...yal → ...e, ...al
...
ue, ...uel → ...ve, ...ul
Some historical examples of these have been hit by analogy and rendered similar to the regular plurals, but some regular plurals have also hit and been turned into examples of these patterns.
Examples (with + marking examples that have appeared due to analogy):
gara, garil (bread roll)
rame, ramal (standard-sized wooden container for salted fish)
+nime, nimal (a flute)
sepe, sepul (grass turf)
gyle, gylar (chopsticks)
+rile, rilar (small drinking vessel)

regular neuter plurals
Regular neuter nouns form their plural by suffixes -veku or -uku. If the final syllable of the stem carries stress (or secondary stress), -uku is used. Otherwise, -veku is used. (This is not entirely true, the truth is "if the final syllable carried stress before the -ve- → -u- reduction in unstressed syllables, it is -uku", however, the previously stated rule of thumb will almost always be accurate, but does account for some dialectal differences. This rule has one absolute consequence, however: monosyllabic neuters always have plurals with -uku. A secondary development that has a similar outcome is -veku after consonant clusters becoming -uku. Here, ' marks stress, appearing before the stressed syllable)
ran-uku wool socks
min-uku fox pelts
tert-uku pebbles
'baset-veku mushrooms
ti'rik-uku straws
'tegarks-uku branches
a'gixn-uku riches

The South Wind and the Sun 1

Wednesday, May 8th, 2019

Text: Elekenda Uri, Loho

Text and Translation

Elekenda ureya lohoya nenenda ŋono takaka ŋeŋeza keŋikeŋime. Narunos mede banas dahidahi ŋeŋi keneno. Ŋeya mede bananda pezes keneradu kehimehi, ŋono takaka saŋihe. Lohoya kehimena, saselevena. Sama ŋono seleve, sama ŋono kalave, mede banas dahidahi keneŋiyi baŋibaŋi. Lohoya kehimeto, elekenda ureya kehimena aŋaka, saderelevina. Saya elekenda sakanda mede sonos oloŋira, pezes kalara. Lamana layisena, tene lamana selese, zeseyelo. Ŋono zeye layisenahiza kenes delino. Mede bananda pezes kenera, maras sara. Nenenda ŋono takaka elekenda uriŋe kodu.

The south wind and the sun were discussing who of the pair was stronger. They saw a woman lying down under a tree. Whoever made the woman move away from under the tree, they would be the stronger. The sun started the task, they started to emit light. They emitted more light, they emitted more heat, and still the woman was lying down under the tree. The sun stopped, and the south wind started, they started to emit breath (blow). He made clouds go from the southern mountains to over the tree, and made the heat go away. The sky started to be hidden, all the light was hidden, and the darkness increased. The woman thought that the sky would start to become darker. The woman went away from under the tree and went home. And so the south wind is the stronger of the pair.

Interlinear and Explanation

Elekenda ureya lohoya nenenda ŋono takaka ŋeŋeza keŋikeŋime.

elekenda
eleke=nda
south=SRC
ureya
uri=ya
wind=CAUS
lohoya
loho=ya
sun=CAUS
nenenda
nene=nda
pair=SRC
ŋono
ŋono
more
takaka
takaka
strong
ŋeŋeza
ŋe=ŋi=za
ANsg=MOVE=PATH
keŋikeŋime
keŋikeŋi=me
inquiry=IN
The south wind and the sun were discussing who of the pair was stronger.

All the conjunctions I have mentioned so far have been clausal conjunctions. Here is an example of phrasal conjuction by simple juxtaposition and the repeating of the rational agent particle =ya. They are both agents creating (use of =me IN) an inquiry (or argument or discussion or any sort of talking with one another to come to a conclusion about a question or situation). The topic of the inquiry is marked with=za and includes all of nenenda ŋono takaka ŋeŋi or of the pair, more strong, who is.

Narunos mede banas dahidahi ŋeŋi keneno.

narunos
na=runu=s
3PLra=eye=LOC
mede
mede
tree
banas
bana=s
foot=LOC
dahidahi
dahidahi
lying.down
ŋeŋi
ŋe=ŋi
ANsg=MOVE
keneno
kene=no
woman=COME
They saw a woman lying down under a tree.

Here is an example of runu in the singular despite having a plural possessor. This is very common, especially when the plural possessors are sensing at the same time. What is sensed is the subject of the motion particle =no COME, a woman, along with the relative clause describing her, one who is lying down.

In mede bana is an example of a body part being used for a non-animate entity. Here bana is essentially the bottom of something. Likewise sono ‘head’ is the top of something.

Ŋeya mede bananda pezes keneradu kehimehi, ŋono takaka saŋihe.

ŋeya
ŋe=ya
ANsg=CAUS
mede
mede
tree
bananda
bana=nda
foot=SRC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
keneradu
kene=ra=du
woman=GO=GOAL
kehimehi
kehi=me=hi
task=IN=POT
ŋono
ŋono
more
takaka
takaka
strong
saŋihe
sa=ŋi=hi
3SGra=MOVE=POT
Whoever made the woman move away from under the tree, they would be the stronger.

Here we have two clauses, both suffixed with the potential =hi. This is a common way to convey a hypothetical situation and consequence. The first clause also has an indefinite agent ŋe making the task.

More sentences coming!

Runulodu Yere 3

Monday, May 6th, 2019

Continuing from previously, the last batch of sentences in Runulodu Yere.

Tabuninda indaya rinive, samas rinirinive.

Tabuninda
Tabuni=nda
Cottontail=SRC
indaya
inda=ya
children=CAUS
rinive
rini=vi
laughter=OUT
samas
sama=s
3SGra=LOC
rinirinive
rinirini=vi
mockery=OUT
Cottontail’s children laughed, they mocked him.

Here are two uses of =vi OUT. The first was seen before, an emitting of noise, in this case laughter. The second, with an attained destination is used to convey covering the destination with a substance (the subject). This usage is then applied metaphorically to mockery. It is also used for cursing and blessing.

Nurunen Peyaŋina, naŋakadu dimidimi sarana.

nurunen
nuru=nen
anger=COM
Peyaŋina
Peya=ŋi=na
Coyote=MOVE=START
naŋakadu
na=ŋaka=du
3PLra=back=PATH
dimidimi
dimidimi
with.force
sarana
sa=ra=na
3SGra=GO=START
Coyote started to move with anger, he started to chase after them.

A basic usage of =du: the goal or not yet attained destination.

Nadu sapenda pezes sara.

nadu
na=du
3PLra=GOAL
sapenda
sa=pe=nda
3SGra=FAIL=SRC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
sara
sa=ra
3SGra=GO
Since he failed to get them, he left.

This is one clause, with an embedded clause marked with =nda. Here =pe is probably negating =ra GO or even =ka TOUCH.

Saya ŋuyanda sama talile duruno hame.

saya
sa=ya
3SGra=CAUS
ŋuyanda
ŋuya=nda
sap=SRC
sama
sama
3SGra
talile
talili
new
duruno
durunu
eye+DU
hame
ha=me
3SGin=IN
He made new eyes out of sap.

The main verb is =me IN, used to convey making the subject, or rather the coming into being of the subject. The subject is his two new eyes. Note that the adjective comes between the possessor and the body part. The thing the subject is made out of or made from is marked with =nda as the source.

The word ŋuya is borrowed from Dirk.

Alas ŋuyago Peya durunuseye kodu.

alas
ala=s
now=LOC
ŋuyago
ŋuyago
like.sap
Peya
Peya
Coyote
durunuseye
durunu=se=yi
eye.DU=STAY=CONT
kodu
kodu
so
And so Coyote’s eyes are like sap (yellowish) now.

And the end of the story continues into the present. The conjunction kodu is ko= (like in koyo, earlier) and =du: ‘for this’.

Next text is the South Wind and the Sun

Conlangery 139: Ainu (natlang)

Monday, May 6th, 2019
Christophe Grandsire-Koevoets joins us to talk to us about Ainu, a minority language of northern Japan. Top of Show Greeting: Bwángxùd by alr2569 (Translation Notes) Links and Resources: Japan’s new policy on the Ainu is misleading A Topical Dictionary of Conversational Ainu Bugaeva, A. (2004). Grammar and folklore texts of the Chitose dialect of Ainu:... Read more »