Archive for June, 2019

Xuunu Midu

Monday, June 17th, 2019

Xuunu Midu consists of three! documents and a torch.

The following non-ascii characters appear in the torch: ñ (n-tilde) ŋ (eng) ʃ (esh) ʒ (ezh).

Lononne wunnu, taatada deŋgada genne datase. Sejewa yeelele yekeke yeelele deŋga pideli genne monna setasa. Dadannewu sejewali nee yekekeli nee golinnestebo.

Deŋga bududa ceesu lañjawa ceñena gakugesteza xoo yebeda degisteze.

Dadastewa cumona canoba, tene ceñele niikena pee xooʒolinnenosteba nolo dodo. Gakugestewa ceñena soo danna doñjame kundebaya. Yebeda cendo danna daññesa nono.

Ceñena caskujeba, lañja yeejedi soo deŋga yeejedi soo danna seezaya. Yeejena benna kaakadesaya.

Deŋga tonoli noojeze; lañjaka pee yebeda haŋŋido kiidoki dase. Dadastewa cumona gakugestewa ceñena soo doñjamespezaya.

Wospe deŋgada yekekeli cendo tanno.

Xuunu Midu

Congratulations, you are the first person to see my new language, called Xuunu Midu. It is a daughter language, mumblety generations later, of Xunumi Wudu. Nouns have fused with their classifiers and then been reinterpreted to contain noun class markers. Verbs have simplified their auxiliaries into new aspect/tense markers, and the evidentials have fused with the enclitic pronouns and then been simplified into something an 18th century armchair linguist might call decorative.* Pronouns are now explicitly stated when needed. The deictic tags have become a third person animate pronoun set. And consonants and sometimes entire syllables have disappeared leaving behind lengthened vowels.

*I have seen an Aztec grammar that calls evidentials ornamental.

A note on pronounciation. Most letters are more or less IPA. Except, c and j are palatal stops or alveolar-palatal affricates. y is therefore the palatal glide. ñ is the palatal nasal. x is the palatal sibilant (ʃ). Long vowels are written double. z is actually an allophone of s (and ʒ of x) but I am writing them separately because in another few generations, after initial s becomes h, they will become separate phonemes.

Anyway, I am going to mix grammar and vocabulary a bit.

Vocabulary

Nouns/Adjectives/Verbs/Time Words

budu mouth
cano think or feel or wonder or otherwise engage in mental activity
caskuje be angry
ceñe adult female person, woman
cumu adult male person, man, becomes cumo in plural
da go
dada travel or wander
data fall, come down
deŋga river
degi be, recline
doñjame watch, observe
gakuge wash (transitive), bathe oneself (intransitive)
goli long time, a long period of time
kaakade help, assist with a task
kiido rock, stone
kunde want, wish, need
lañja mountain
lono day
niike nearby, next, neighbor
nooje change, be changed or altered
pide edge, bank or a river
see talk to, speak to, say to
sejewa finishing, west
seta stop, pause in a journey
taatada rain
tanno flow
tene each with a singular noun; every, all with plural nouns
tono path, road
wospe from then on, since then
xooʒoli beautiful
yebe pool, lake
yeeje spirit, deity
yeele person, adult person
yekeke south

The above may or may not take the following suffixes:

Derivational Suffixes

These are closer to the word stem than other suffixes.
=nne turns a noun or adjective or adverb into a verb or a copula; turns a verb into a noun before adding a noun class marker
=no aspectual suffix for becoming, expanding, or contracting. Used with adverbs nolo/nota for more/less so of a quality
=ññe aspectual suffix for starting. Used with adverb nono
=spe aspectual suffix for failing at an intended task
=stewa turns a verb into an adjective describing something that is in the process of Ving
=wa turns a noun into an adjective of association (of the N)

Tense + Evidentiality + Person suffixes for verbs

=ba recent past + inferred + 3rd person animate or 2nd person plural subject
=baya recent past + inferred + 3rd person animate or 2nd person plural subject + 3rd person animate object
=sa recent past + reported + 3rd person animate or 2nd person plural subject. Also –za
=saya recent past + reported + 3rd person animate or 2nd person plural subject + 3rd person animate object. Also –zaya
=se recent past + reported + 3rd person inanimate subject. Also –ze
=steba current present + inferred + 3rd person animate or 2nd person plural subject
=stebo current present + inferred + 3rd person inanimate subject
=steza current present + reported + 3rd person animate or 2nd person plural subject
=steze current present + reported + 3rd person inanimate subject
=za see =sa
=zaya see =saya

Use of tenses/evidentiality/etc

Recent Past is the default tense. Present will be used when wanting to talk about a current or an imminent happening. There is also a zero marked non-past/present which does not mark evidentiality or person and is used for timeless events and past events continuing into the present and future. That is the base form of the verb, used in auxiliary constructions and so on. Reported is used for facts learned by being told or taught and for indirect speech. Direct is used for eyewitnessed events, events one has participated in, one’s own thoughts and feelings, and for direct speech reports. Inferred is used for supposition, reasoning, and deduction, including the deduction of what other people are thinking and feeling.

Noun Class Markers

These are only used on definite nouns. Indefinite nouns don’t get to have one. A noun can take different noun class markers with a corresponding change in meaning.
=da noun class marker for water
=di noun class marker for a spirit or deity
=ka noun class marker for large things, heaps, mounds, etc.
=ki noun class marker for many large things
=le noun class marker for an adult person
=li noun class marker for abstract nouns, paths, and uncountable or immeasurable things
=na noun class marker for multiple people or spirits, i.e. animate plural
=wu noun class marker for time periods and events

Full Pronouns

benna 3rd person animate plural object pronoun
danna 3rd person animate plural subject pronoun
monna 3rd person animate plural non-volitional subject pronoun
xoo relative pronoun for places, where

Postpositions and Adverbs

ceesu at, among, in an area
cendo towards
dodo marks a subordinate clause
haŋŋido around, to around
genne along a path, up and/or down a river, along an edge
nee via, along, with
nolo more and more
nono start (redundant with =ññe)
pee from. Denotes a source or cause or a standard of comparison
soo marks an object when an object needs to be marked
wunnu while, during. Marks a subordinate clause of scene-setting

Other Grammatical Quirks

Nouns in juxtaposition, particularly if the first noun has no noun class marker, make a whole – part construction. As in Sylvia kuuwu ‘Sylvia’s hand’.

Animate nouns include those denoting people, spirits and deities, and celestial objects (which are also spirits). Everything else is considered to be inanimate.

Word Order

XM is SOV where S is a full noun phrase. It is OSV where S is a pronoun. If S is divided from V by enough other stuff, it will sometimes be repeated as a pronoun just before the verb. Redundancy is good! Most of the times peripheral phrases (marked by postpositions) will come between the subject and the verb. Sometimes they won’t.

Also, particularly for verbs derived from time words, sometimes there is no stated subject.

O is not always marked by soo. Some pronouns are inherently O, so soo would be redundant. Redundancy is good, but not in this case. Also, if O is inanimate, it isn’t always marked because of course the inanimate argument will be the object.

Since the language is OV, adjectives come before nouns, relative clauses come before the relative pronoun which comes before the noun, and there are many postpositional modifiers. It is also strongly suffixing. Auxiliary verbs follow main verbs and aspectual adverbs follow verbs.

=== end of torch ===

And since the LCC7 relay isn’t online anywhere that I can find, here is the translation…

My translation of the previous torch:

As the day was growing*, the rain flowed on the river. Because of the water, those from the west and those from the south stopped at the riverbank as well. Travel to the west and to the south would probably be using for a long time. (take a long time)

At the mouth of the river was the lake where the mountain women bathed.

From Kalin: every sister will probably be more beautiful that the one before. However, the man of the quiet mountain was watching the women, and starting towards the lake and the place the women’s husbands will probably begin to hate.

The sisters spoke with the creator of the mountain and were angry. The spirit of the river helped them.

The river changed course and the men who went towards Quiet Mountain failed to watch the women who were bathing.

And the spirit of the mountain covered the lake all the way to the rocks. After which, the river is flowing only to the south.

*I love this metaphor!

My changes for translation purposes and cultural make-sense-of-it-ness:

During the day, rain fell on the river. Those from the west and those from the south stopped at the riverbank. Travel to the west and to the south takes a long time (inference).

At the mouth of the river was the lake where the mountain women bathe.

The traveling men thought, every woman was more beautiful than her neighbors (inference). They wanted to watch the bathing women. They started towards the lake.

The women were angry and spoke with the mountain spirit and the river spirit. The spirits helped them.

Boulders from the mountain went into the lake and the river’s path changed. The traveling men failed to watch the bathing women.

Since then, the river flows south.

Inavewa

Friday, June 14th, 2019

Inavewa was very short-lived. One neat thing it had was a verbal paradigm with a 1st/2nd vs 3rd person distinction. There was also a collective vs separated (not collective) plural. It exists in two documents: A google doc and a google sheet with vocabulary.

Since that was so short, here is the song that convinced me that it really was okay to have multiple ŋ’s in a word.

August 2018 Precursor to KS

Wednesday, June 12th, 2019

This is all that exists. Think of it as a look at how I brainstorm. Note that I really do make up body parts very early on in the process. Also, this still has evidentiality, which I discarded for KS. The next language will definitely have to have evidentiality!

This is also where I decided to have an ‘r’ already.

Gary’s Sentences

1. The sun shines. HABITUAL

2. The sun is shining. PROGRESSIVE

Light is what moves: sele

Motion is OUT, and from contact with the SRC

Sun is the source: loo

loho=ru sele=vi

Is light, singular, multiple, or collective? Coll.

loho=ru sele=viyi

Tense is non-past

ADV for emphasizing habitual: lena or lenaka

loho=ru sele=viyi lenaka

(actually, can appear in any order)

lenaka lohoru seleviyi

seleviyi lenaka lohoru

etc.

3. The sun shone. Distant PAST

5. The sun has been shining. RECENT PAST PROG

loho=ru sele=viyi (Non-past)


SGMULTCOLL
NPvivenaviyi
DIRvelavelanaveleyi
INFvibovibonavibuyi
REPvitevitenavitiyi

loho=ru sele=veleyi

4. The sun will shine. FUTURE

7. The sun will shine tomorrow. FUTURE

loho=ru sele=viyi rerehe (in the future)

loho=ru sele=viyi lanalan (tomorrow)

6. The sun is shining again. ITERATIVE

loho=ru sele=viyi rus (again)

8. The sun shines brightly. adverb

9. The bright sun shines. adjective

loho=ru sele=viyi luluvu

luvu loho=ru sele=viyi

loho=ru luvu sele =viyi

If Subject NP is complex:

luvu sele lohoru ma=viyi

ma=viyi loho=ru luvu sele

10. The sun is rising now. PROGRESSIVE/PATH

loho=ŋi sono (up/head) lala (now)

cājkigabellyinside
cēmkimawaistmiddle
ciēlkilifacesurface
hālgalachestfront
hēññgeŋihair
hīñgiŋinosepoint
hōrrgoroheel
jāonginubutt
jētgitepalm
jōlgiloknees
kāckakenails
kāenkeneflesh
kēmkemefinger
kīwkibiskin
kōλkolineck
ku(vu)hand
lēŋŋleŋeguts
līwlibinerves
lōhlogoelbows
lōmmlomoforearm
mācmakeliver
māllmalaheart
mānmanablood
mōlmolowomb
mūñmuŋibones
ñāmŋimashouldernext to
nīmnimitoe
nōmnomowrist
nōsnosopenis
ŋākŋakabackback
ōrwworulegs
piēxpiziteeth
rēxreziurine
rōñrunueye
sārsaraears
sāttsatabody
sērjserinavel
sēsssesekidneys
sōnsonoheadtop
tāktakaarms
tāltalavagina
tāwrtarumouth
þākdakathigh
þēlldelelung
tīrrtiriankle
ūsnwunutongue
ūxwuzianus
wānnbanafootbottom
wērberename
wūnbunusweat
wūtbutushit

11. All the people shouted.

12. Some of the people shouted.

13. Many of the people shouted twice.

thing moving: sound

source: people (all, some, many)

type of motion: OUT

yele = people

animate nouns get explicit plurals: yele, yena, yeliyi

a shout, a cry, a loud noise: rul

yeleyi=ru rulu=veleyi (all at once)

yena=ru rulu=velana (separately)

all = tene + sg

some = peve + mult

many = nana + mult

tene yele=ru rulu=veleyi/velana

peve yena=ru rulu=veleyi/velana

nana yena=ru rulu=velana yene (twice)

14. Happy people often shout.

hanada yena=ru rulu=velana lenaka

15. The kitten jumped up.

16. The kitten jumped onto the table.

yirele = kitten

motion = VIA and up

yirele=ŋela sono tebe=s (onto the table)

17. My little kitten walked away.

No my in this context

yirele=ŋela peze=no (away) liye=pe > lipe (from me (no contact))

18. It’s raining. & 19. The rain came down.

tatara=ŋeleyi (bana)

20. The kitten is playing in the rain.

tatara=nen yirele=ru gire=ŋi

21. The rain has stopped (falling).

tatara=ŋeleyi toro (bana)

22. Soon the rain will stop.

23. I hope the rain stops soon.

tatara=ŋiyi rehe (soon) toro (stop)

diri=me liye=s / les rehe toro tatara=ŋiyi=ru diri=me

24. Once wild animals lived here.

long ago = lilite

wild animals = pake+yi

here = do=s

lived/dwelled = =ye > past.reported = tiyi

dos lilite pakeyi=tiyi (mara=gi (their home))

li / ri / sa / ma / ye

BE/no motion

ye – yena – yigi

la – lana – leyi

bo – bona -buyi

te – tena – tiyi

Kēpa Sōro

Monday, June 10th, 2019

So back in January, I shared this document with John Quijada. It contains the immediate precursor to Kenda Soro, called Kēpa Sōro. Some changes:

  • No more long vs short vowel distinction
  • Fewer particles, though the same motion particles
  • Changes in what gets marked

For the particles, I specifically got rid of several and renamed =ko to =nda. This was a big improvement, as I have a tendency to add a new particle anytime I have a new relationship to code.

Otherwise the motion particles and the nouns are more or less the same.

About the New Language

Friday, June 7th, 2019

Kēlen is the old language, of course, and it took 20+ years to develop into something more than a few names, words, and phrases.

The New Language started in December of 2012. Here is a timeline:

Sodna-leni (Dec 2012)
This started as an experiment with a small number of verbs encoding different types of motion. Posts tagged for this language.

Sodemadu (Dec 2015)
a better Sodna-leni. Website.

Tessese(ya) (Feb 2016 – Aug 2016)
Then I got fed up with the limitations of a small number of verbs, and created Tesseseya in order to relieve the stress and have some fun. Nuvutani is the first text for an early version of this language. Website.

Xunumi Wudu (Aug 2016-June 2017)
Back to a limited number of verbs (though about 3-4 times as many as Sodemadu) and a better understanding of what I am trying to do. Maybe. Website. Posts tagged for this language.

Xuunu Midu (July/Aug 2017)
an updated XW.

Ciye Sodo (Feb-July 2018)
a better XW.

Inavewa (July 2018)
scrap it all and play a bit

Precursor to KS (Aug 2018)

Kēpa Sōro (Nov 2018)
OK, a limited number of verbs AND the ability to translate into it without too much trouble. Also, allowed ‘r’ in the phonology.

Kenda Soro
a better Kēpa Sōro. See previous posts!

I’ll see over the weekend if I can find some material on the ones that are not on the web.

Dedaloza Tani 3

Wednesday, June 5th, 2019

Text and Translation

Kines yenda durondas uduriza ŋera neneno, namas eri neneŋiza bolono. Gareke lires naki, koros sovonda ŋono pezes sarananda andalona. Samas siŋi udures saloziza kuŋino, sovonda tononda runurunu sara. Lohoya mezi menepesena, pobolo tininisena. Uduridu koro vubire taka dimidimi haka, rusurusu haka, satana. Garas yedas satanda bereno.

Soronen andatepe sovoŋe, alas sovo sape, “Ikaro, zosos diŋi? Zosodo lirunuŋi?” Evi, “Ikaro,” alas sarunos tadano sonos zara tininino, saya sanda tudutos bavasavi. Saya ekeges koro satara, koronda kines berenoyi, Ikariya.

People on land see the pair flying through the air, and think they are spirits. They pass by the Gareke islands, and the boy feels more joy the more distance he is from the father. He desires to go higher in the air, and he forgets the father’s path. The sun begins to make the wax soft, and the feathers begin to come apart. The boy’s bare arms hit at the air repeatedly, and he begins to fall. The waters get a name from his falling into them.

The joyless father, now not a father, says,”Ikaro, where are you? Where do I look for you?” “Ikaro,” he said as he sees the feathers that are on top of the waves, and he curses his arts. He puts the boy’s body in the ground, and the land gets its name from the boy, Ikariya.

Interlinear and Explanation

Kines yenda durondas uduriza ŋera neneno, namas eri neneŋiza bolono.

kines
kini=s
land=LOC
yenda
yele-na
person-PL
durondas
duronda=s
eye.GP=LOC
uduriza
uduri=za
air=PATH
ŋera
ŋe=ra
SG.AN=GO
neneno
nene=no
pair=COME
namas
nama=s
3PL.AN=LOC
eri
eri
spirit
neneŋiza
nene=ŋi=za
pair=MOVE=PATH
bolono
bolo=no
belief=COME
People on land saw the pair flying through the air, and thought they were spirits.

Gareke lires naki, koros sovonda ŋono pezes sarananda andalona.

Gareke
Gareke
liri=s
island=LOC
na=ki
3PLan=BY
koro=s
boy=LOC
sovo=nda
father=SRC
ŋono
more
pezi=s
away=LOC
sa=ra=na=nda
3SG.RA=GO=START=SRC
anda=lo=na
joy=UP=START
They passed by the Gareke islands, and the boy felt more joy the more distance he was from the father.

Samas siŋi udures saloziza kuŋino, sovonda tononda runurunu sara.

samas
sama=s
3SG.RA=LOC
siŋi
siŋi
high
udures
uduri=s
air=LOC
saloziza
sa=lo=zi=za
3SG.RA=UP=FUT=PATH
kuŋino
kuŋi=no
desire=COME
sovonda
sovo=nda
father=SRC
tononda
tono=nda
path=SRC
runurunu
runurunu
forgetting
sara
sa=ra
3SG.RA=GO
He desired to go higher in the air, and he forgot the father’s path.

Lohoya mezi menepesena, pobolo tininisena.

lohoya
loho=ya
sun=CAUS
mezi
mezi
soft
menepesena
menepe=se=na
wax=STAY=START
pobolo
pobolo
apart
tininisena
tinini=se=na
feather=STAY=START
The sun began to make the wax soft, and the feathers began to come apart.

Uduridu koro vubire taka dimidimi haka, rusurusu haka, satana.

uduridu
uduri=du
air=GOAL
koro
koro
boy
vubire
vubire
bare
taka
taka
arm
dimidimi
dimidimi
with.force
haka
ha=ka
3SG.IN=TOUCH
rusurusu
rusurusu
repeatedly
haka
ha=ka
3SG.IN=TOUCH
satana
sa=ta=na
3SG.RA=DOWN=START
The boy’s bare arms hit at the air repeatedly, and he began to fall.

Apparently a noun can take multiple adjectives, but a verb/motion particle can only take one adverb. Hence the repetition of the verb phrase.

Garas yedas satanda bereno.

garas
gara=s
water=LOC
yedas
yeda=s
3PL.IN=LOC
satanda
sa=ta=nda
3SG.RA=DOWN=SRC
bereno
bere=no
name=COME
The waters got a name from his falling into them.

Soronen andatepe sovoŋe, alas sovo sape, “Ikaro, zosos diŋi? Zosodo lirunuŋi?”

soronen
soro=nen
word=COM
andatepe
andatepe
joy-less
sovoŋe
sovo=ŋi
father=MOVE
alas
ala=s
now=LOC
sovo
sovo
father
sape
sa=pe
3SG.RA=FAIL
Ikaro
Ikaro
Ikaro
zosos
zoso=s
where=LOC
diŋi
di=ŋi
2SG=MOVE
zosodo
zoso=du
where=GOAL
lirunuŋi
li=runu=ŋi
1SG=eye=MOVE
The joyless father, now not a father, said,””Ikaro, where are you? Where do I look for you?”

Evi, “Ikaro,” alas sarunos tadano sonos zara tininino, saya sanda tudutos bavasavi.

evi
e=vi
3PL.IN=OUT
Ikaro
Ikaro
Ikaro
alas
ala=s
now=LOC
sarunos
sa=runu=s
3SG.RA=eye=LOC
tadano
tadanu
waves
sonos
sono=s
head=LOC
zara
za=ra
3PL.IN=GO
tininino
tinini=no
feather=COME
saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
sanda
sa=nda
3SG.RA=SRC
tudutos
tudutu=s
learning=LOC
bavasavi
bavasa=vi
badness=OUT
“Ikaro,” he said as he saw the feathers that were on top of the waves, and he cursed his arts.

Curse is “cover with badness”.

Saya ekeges koro satara, koronda kines berenoyi, Ikariya.

saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
ekeges
ekegi=s
ground=LOC
koro
koro
boy
satara
sata=ra
body=GO
koronda
koro=nda
boy=SRC
kines
kini=s
land=LOC
berenoyi
bere=no=yi
name=COME=CONT
Ikariya
Ikariya
Ikariya
He put the boy’s body in the ground, and the land got its name from the boy, Ikariya.

Dedaloza Tani 2

Monday, June 3rd, 2019

Text and Translation

Seresere koro Ikaroŋi, sovoya zame kegevedu sarunuŋi. Sadu sakemekaza seŋipe, mezi esenadu menepes tinines sakemeka. Saya sovonda vubeŋe kegevedu yerenen pabasame. Sotos pesize tininiranda uraŋireŋes nene yalono zoŋi ŋandanen Dedaloŋi. Korodo rondonen sovoŋe, “Ikaro, aŋene tonoza direhe. Ebevedu direhe, yagaranen tumu tininisenahi. Lohodo direhe, tinines sanaluvinahi. Didu tatave, aŋene tonoza ira. Ebeve, loho, nene aŋeneza ira. Liŋakaza ino, aŋene tonoza ira.”

Saya atuvuza tutuve, koro ŋamas nene talile ŋandara aŋaka. Sovo ranarana kasaya koros pezise kanaka. Zaŋi tinininen udures sovolona. Tuvonda atuvuza tuturadu Dedaloŋi. Zoŋi ŋandanen uduriza sara, koronda ŋandas saruno iride hareye.

The boy Ikaro is standing, and watching his father’s work. The danger of touching fails to come to him, and his fingers touch the feathers and soften the wax. He impedes his father’s unusual work with play. After the final feather is placed, Dedalo has a pair of moving, spread-apart wings. The father gives the boy advice, “Ikaro, go via the middle path. If you go towards the sea, its water might make the feathers heavy. If you go towards the sun, its fire might cover the feathers. I command you, take the middle path. Sea, sun, go via the middle of the pair. Follow my back, take the middle path!”

He gives a lesson in flying and then puts a pair of new wings on the boy’s shoulders. The father, with shaking hands, gives the boy a final caress. With moving feathers, the father leaps into the air. Dedalo is like a bird giving a lesson in flying. With moving wings he goes through the air, his eyes looking back at the boy’s wings.

Interlinear and Explanation

Seresere koro Ikaroŋi, sovoya zame kegevedu sarunuŋi.

seresere
seresere
standing
koro
koro
boy
Ikaroŋi
Ikaro=ŋi
Ikaro=MOVE
sovoya
sovo=ya
father=CAUS
zame
za=me
PL.IN=INTO
kegevedu
kegeve=du
work=GOAL
sarunuŋi
sa=runu=ŋi
3SG.RA=eye=MOVE
The boy Ikaro was standing, and watching his father’s work.

Sadu sakemekaza seŋipe, mezi esenadu menepes tinines sakemeka.

sadu
sa=du
3SG.RA=GOAL
sakemekaza
sa=keme=ka=za
3SG.RA=finger=TOUCH=PATH
seŋipe
seŋi=pe
warning=FAIL
mezi
mezi
soft
esenadu
e=se=na=du
3PL.IN=STAY=START=GOAL
menepes
menepe=s
wax=LOC
tinines
tinini=s
feather=LOC
sakemeka
sa=keme=ka
3SG.RA=finger=TOUCH
The danger of touching failed to come to him, and his fingers touched the feathers and softened the wax.

Saya sovonda vubeŋe kegevedu yerenen pabasame.

saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
sovonda
sovo=nda
father=SRC
vubeŋe
vubeŋe
unusual
kegevedu
kegeve=du
work=GOAL
yerenen
yere=nen
game=COM
pabasame
pabasa=me
obstacle=INTO
He impeded his father’s unusual work with play.

Sotos pesize tininiranda uraŋireŋes nene yalono zoŋi ŋandanen Dedaloŋi.

sotos
soto=s
place=LOC
pesize
pesize
final
tininiranda
tinini=ra=nda
feather=GO=SRC
uraŋireŋes
uraŋiraŋi=s
middle.air=LOC
nene
nene
pair
yalono
yalono
spread
zoŋi
zo=ŋi
PL.IN=MOVE
ŋandanen
ŋanda=nen
wing=COM
Dedaloŋi
Dedalo=ŋi
Dedalo=MOVE
After the final feather was placed, Dedalo had a pair of moving, spread-apart wings.

Korodo rondonen sovoŋe, “Ikaro, aŋene tonoza direhe.

korodo
koro=du
boy=GOAL
rondonen
rondo=nen
advice=COM
sovoŋe
sovo=ŋi
father=MOVE
Ikaro
Ikaro
Ikaro
aŋene
aŋene
middle
tonoza
tono=za
path=PATH
direhe
di=ra=hi
2SG=GO=POT
The father gave the boy advice, “Ikaro, go via the middle path.

Ebevedu direhe, yagaranen tumu tininisenahi.

ebevedu
ebeve=du
sea=GOAL
direhe
di=ra=hi
2SG=GO=POT
yagaranen
ya=gara=nen
3PLan=water=COM
tumu
tumu
heavy
tininisenahi
tinini=se=na=hi
feather=STAY=START=POT
If you go towards the sea, its water might make the feathers heavy.

Lohodo direhe, tinines sanaluvinahi.

lohodo
loho=du
sun=GOAL
direhe
di=ra=hi
2SG=GO=POT
tinines
tinini=s
feather=LOC
sanaluvinahi
sa=nalu=vi=na=hi
3SG.RA=fire=OUT=START=POT
If you go towards the sun, its fire might cover the feathers.

Didu tatave, aŋene tonoza ira.

didu
di=du
2SG=GOAL
tatave
tata=vi
command=OUT
aŋene
aŋene
middle
tonoza
tono=za
path=PATH
ira
i=ra
3SG.AN=GO
I command you, take the middle path.

Ebeve, loho, nene aŋeneza ira.

ebeve
ebeve
sea
loho
loho
sun
nene
nene
pair
aŋeneza
aŋene=za
middle=PATH
ira
i=ra
3SG.AN=GO
Sea, sun, go via the middle of the pair.

Liŋakaza ino, aŋene tonoza ira.”

liŋakaza
li=ŋaka=za
1SG=back=PATH
ino
i=no
3SG.AN=COME
aŋene
aŋene
middle
tonoza
tono=za
path=PATH
ira
i=ra
3SG.AN=GO
Follow my back, take the middle path!”

Saya atuvuza tutuve, koro ŋamas nene talile ŋandara aŋaka.

saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
atuvuza
atuvu=za
flying=PATH
tutuve
tutu=vi
lesson=OUT
koro
koro
boy
ŋamas
ŋama=s
shoulder=LOC
nene
nene
pair
talile
talile
new
ŋandara
ŋanda=ra
wing=GO
aŋaka
aŋaka
and.then
He gave a lesson in flying and then put a pair of new wings on the boy’s shoulders.

Sovo ranarana kasaya koros pezise kanaka.

sovo
sovo
father
ranarana
ranarana
shaking
kasaya
kasa=ya
hand=CAUS
koros
koro=s
boy=LOC
pezise
pezise
final
kanaka
kana=ka
endearment=TOUCH
The father, with shaking hands, gave the boy a final caress.

Zaŋi tinininen udures sovolona.

zaŋi
za=ŋi
PL.IN=MOVE
tinininen
tinini=nen
feather=COM
udures
uduri=s
air=LOC
sovolona
sovo=lo=na
father=UP=START
With moving feathers, the father leapt into the air.

Tuvonda atuvuza tuturadu Dedaloŋi.

tuvonda
tuvu=nda
bird=SRC
atuvuza
atuvu=za
flying=PATH
tuturadu
tutu=ra=du
lesson=GO=GOAL
Dedaloŋi
Dedalo=ŋi
Dedalo=MOVE
Dedalo was like a bird giving a lesson in flying.

Zoŋi ŋandanen uduriza sara, koronda ŋandas saruno iride hareye.

zoŋi
zo=ŋi
SGin=MOVE
ŋandanen
ŋanda=nen
wing=COM
uduriza
uduri=za
air=PATH
sara
sa=ra
3SG.RA=GO
koronda
koro=nda
boy=SRC
ŋandas
ŋanda=s
wing=LOC
saruno
sa=runu
3SG.RA=eye
iride
iride
backwards
hareye
ha=ra=yi
3SG.IN=GO=CONT
With moving wings he went through the air, his eyes looking back at the boy’s wings.

Conlangery SHORTS 30: Revising a Grammar

Monday, June 3rd, 2019
George spends some time talking about his recent revisions of his Istatikii grammar, with a focus on organizing writing to serve the needs of the language and the readers. You will find the two drafts of the Istatikii consonant processes below. Script below the fold, see the history here. Welcome to Conlangery, the podcast about... Read more »

Le Lingue Artificiali de Il Trono di Spade: Analisi linguistica dell’Alto Valyriano e del Dothraki

Saturday, June 1st, 2019

Alida Castronovo was born on the 4th of April in 1992, in the city of Palermo, in Sicily. She attended the University of Palermo and obtained a Bachelor’s Degree in Languages and Modern Literature and Linguistic Mediation. She continued her studies at the same university and obtained a Master’s Degree in Western and Eastern Languages and Modern Literature.

Besides her passion for music and TV-series, her interests are to be found in linguistics’ field and in foreign languages. Her passion for languages has always accompanied her throughout her academic history, in which she studied several languages, such as English, German, Chinese and French.

Alida Castronovo è nata il 4 aprile 1992 a Palermo, in Sicilia. Ha frequentato l’Università degli Studi di Palermo, conseguendo una Laurea Triennale in Lingue e Letterature Moderne e Mediazione Linguistica. Ha continuato i suoi studi universitari presso l’Università di Palermo, conseguendo una Laurea Magistrale in Lingue e Letterature Moderne dell’Occidente e dell’Oriente.

Oltre ad essere una grande appassionata di musica e serie tv, i suoi interessi spaziano anche nel campo della linguistica e delle lingue straniere. La sua passione per le lingue l’ha accompagnata durante tutto il suo percorso accademico all’interno del quale ha studiato diverse lingue, quali l’inglese, il tedesco, il cinese e il francese.

Abstract

Nowadays, constructed languages are catching linguistic research’s attention more and more. But, such a complex field does not enjoy the prestige it deserves yet. The purpose of this thesis is that of demolishing, through knowledge, scepticism’s barriers that have always accompanied this form of art, by highlighting the way the TV-show Game of Thrones’ constructed languages (Dothraki and High Valyrian) are destroying the prejudice, little by little.

In Chapter I, basic concept concerning conlangs will be presented by investigating their origins, their propulsive thrusts and by providing noteworthy examples, such as Volapük or Esperanto.

Chapter II provides the analysis of the most famous examples of constructed languages created for literature and cinematography, such as Tolkien’s elvish language (Quenya), Paul Frommer’s Na’vi and Mark Okrand’s Klingon.

Chapter III offers an in-depth analysis on Game of Thrones’ constructed languages, Dothraki and High Valyrian, created by David J. Peterson. In this chapter, every linguistic aspect of these languages will be analysed, with detailed tables and explanatory examples.

Finally, in Chapter IV, we provide an analysis of Game of Thrones’ languages, whose aim is that of evaluating their linguistic adequacy from a typological point of view. In doing so, we refer to Greenberg’s typological classification of languages. Therefore, Dothraki and High Valyrian will be analysed and filtered through Greenberg’s Implicational Universals of Languages. (Italian Text)

Le lingue artificiali stanno acquisendo sempre più valore, attirando sempre più le attenzioni della ricerca linguistica. Un settore così complesso e articolato non gode ancora però del prestigio con cui lo si dovrebbe guardare. Obiettivo di questa trattazione è quello di abbattere, attraverso la conoscenza, le barriere dello scetticismo che da sempre accompagna questa vera e propria arte, mettendo in luce il processo di annientamento del pregiudizio che scompare anche grazie al successo delle lingue artificiali create per la serie tvGame of Thrones.

Nel Capitolo I verranno affrontati i concetti di base riguardanti il mondo delle lingue artificiali, indagandone origini, motivazioni e presentando alcuni tra gli esempi più noti, come il volapük o l’esperanto.

Nel Capitolo II verranno presentati i grandi esempi di lingue artificiali create per la letteratura o per la cinematografia, come la lingua elfica di Tolkien, il na’vi di Paul Frommer e il klingon di Mark Okrand.

Il Capitolo III scenderà più a fondo nell’analisi delle lingue artificiali create da David J. Peterson per la serie tv Game of Thrones, l’alto valyriano e il dothraki. In questo capitolo verranno analizzati tutti gli aspetti linguistici noti, correlati di tabelle esplicative ed esempi chiarificatori.

Infine, nel Capitolo IV viene proposta un’analisi delle lingue di Game of Thrones volta a valutarne l’adeguatezza linguistica da un punto di vista tipologico, facendo riferimento alla classificazione tipologica delle lingue che vede come suo principale teorico Joseph Greenberg. Le lingue in questione verranno, dunque, analizzate attraverso il filtro delle implicazioni postulate negli universali linguistici greenberghiani.

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