Archive for June, 2019

Dedaloza Tani 3

Wednesday, June 5th, 2019

Text and Translation

Kines yenda durondas uduriza ŋera neneno, namas eri neneŋiza bolono. Gareke lires naki, koros sovonda ŋono pezes sarananda andalona. Samas siŋi udures saloziza kuŋino, sovonda tononda runurunu sara. Lohoya mezi menepesena, pobolo tininisena. Uduridu koro vubire taka dimidimi haka, rusurusu haka, satana. Garas yedas satanda bereno.

Soronen andatepe sovoŋe, alas sovo sape, “Ikaro, zosos diŋi? Zosodo lirunuŋi?” Evi, “Ikaro,” alas sarunos tadano sonos zara tininino, saya sanda tudutos bavasavi. Saya ekeges koro satara, koronda kines berenoyi, Ikariya.

People on land see the pair flying through the air, and think they are spirits. They pass by the Gareke islands, and the boy feels more joy the more distance he is from the father. He desires to go higher in the air, and he forgets the father’s path. The sun begins to make the wax soft, and the feathers begin to come apart. The boy’s bare arms hit at the air repeatedly, and he begins to fall. The waters get a name from his falling into them.

The joyless father, now not a father, says,”Ikaro, where are you? Where do I look for you?” “Ikaro,” he said as he sees the feathers that are on top of the waves, and he curses his arts. He puts the boy’s body in the ground, and the land gets its name from the boy, Ikariya.

Interlinear and Explanation

Kines yenda durondas uduriza ŋera neneno, namas eri neneŋiza bolono.

kines
kini=s
land=LOC
yenda
yele-na
person-PL
durondas
duronda=s
eye.GP=LOC
uduriza
uduri=za
air=PATH
ŋera
ŋe=ra
SG.AN=GO
neneno
nene=no
pair=COME
namas
nama=s
3PL.AN=LOC
eri
eri
spirit
neneŋiza
nene=ŋi=za
pair=MOVE=PATH
bolono
bolo=no
belief=COME
People on land saw the pair flying through the air, and thought they were spirits.

Gareke lires naki, koros sovonda ŋono pezes sarananda andalona.

Gareke
Gareke
liri=s
island=LOC
na=ki
3PLan=BY
koro=s
boy=LOC
sovo=nda
father=SRC
ŋono
more
pezi=s
away=LOC
sa=ra=na=nda
3SG.RA=GO=START=SRC
anda=lo=na
joy=UP=START
They passed by the Gareke islands, and the boy felt more joy the more distance he was from the father.

Samas siŋi udures saloziza kuŋino, sovonda tononda runurunu sara.

samas
sama=s
3SG.RA=LOC
siŋi
siŋi
high
udures
uduri=s
air=LOC
saloziza
sa=lo=zi=za
3SG.RA=UP=FUT=PATH
kuŋino
kuŋi=no
desire=COME
sovonda
sovo=nda
father=SRC
tononda
tono=nda
path=SRC
runurunu
runurunu
forgetting
sara
sa=ra
3SG.RA=GO
He desired to go higher in the air, and he forgot the father’s path.

Lohoya mezi menepesena, pobolo tininisena.

lohoya
loho=ya
sun=CAUS
mezi
mezi
soft
menepesena
menepe=se=na
wax=STAY=START
pobolo
pobolo
apart
tininisena
tinini=se=na
feather=STAY=START
The sun began to make the wax soft, and the feathers began to come apart.

Uduridu koro vubire taka dimidimi haka, rusurusu haka, satana.

uduridu
uduri=du
air=GOAL
koro
koro
boy
vubire
vubire
bare
taka
taka
arm
dimidimi
dimidimi
with.force
haka
ha=ka
3SG.IN=TOUCH
rusurusu
rusurusu
repeatedly
haka
ha=ka
3SG.IN=TOUCH
satana
sa=ta=na
3SG.RA=DOWN=START
The boy’s bare arms hit at the air repeatedly, and he began to fall.

Apparently a noun can take multiple adjectives, but a verb/motion particle can only take one adverb. Hence the repetition of the verb phrase.

Garas yedas satanda bereno.

garas
gara=s
water=LOC
yedas
yeda=s
3PL.IN=LOC
satanda
sa=ta=nda
3SG.RA=DOWN=SRC
bereno
bere=no
name=COME
The waters got a name from his falling into them.

Soronen andatepe sovoŋe, alas sovo sape, “Ikaro, zosos diŋi? Zosodo lirunuŋi?”

soronen
soro=nen
word=COM
andatepe
andatepe
joy-less
sovoŋe
sovo=ŋi
father=MOVE
alas
ala=s
now=LOC
sovo
sovo
father
sape
sa=pe
3SG.RA=FAIL
Ikaro
Ikaro
Ikaro
zosos
zoso=s
where=LOC
diŋi
di=ŋi
2SG=MOVE
zosodo
zoso=du
where=GOAL
lirunuŋi
li=runu=ŋi
1SG=eye=MOVE
The joyless father, now not a father, said,””Ikaro, where are you? Where do I look for you?”

Evi, “Ikaro,” alas sarunos tadano sonos zara tininino, saya sanda tudutos bavasavi.

evi
e=vi
3PL.IN=OUT
Ikaro
Ikaro
Ikaro
alas
ala=s
now=LOC
sarunos
sa=runu=s
3SG.RA=eye=LOC
tadano
tadanu
waves
sonos
sono=s
head=LOC
zara
za=ra
3PL.IN=GO
tininino
tinini=no
feather=COME
saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
sanda
sa=nda
3SG.RA=SRC
tudutos
tudutu=s
learning=LOC
bavasavi
bavasa=vi
badness=OUT
“Ikaro,” he said as he saw the feathers that were on top of the waves, and he cursed his arts.

Curse is “cover with badness”.

Saya ekeges koro satara, koronda kines berenoyi, Ikariya.

saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
ekeges
ekegi=s
ground=LOC
koro
koro
boy
satara
sata=ra
body=GO
koronda
koro=nda
boy=SRC
kines
kini=s
land=LOC
berenoyi
bere=no=yi
name=COME=CONT
Ikariya
Ikariya
Ikariya
He put the boy’s body in the ground, and the land got its name from the boy, Ikariya.

Dedaloza Tani 2

Monday, June 3rd, 2019

Text and Translation

Seresere koro Ikaroŋi, sovoya zame kegevedu sarunuŋi. Sadu sakemekaza seŋipe, mezi esenadu menepes tinines sakemeka. Saya sovonda vubeŋe kegevedu yerenen pabasame. Sotos pesize tininiranda uraŋireŋes nene yalono zoŋi ŋandanen Dedaloŋi. Korodo rondonen sovoŋe, “Ikaro, aŋene tonoza direhe. Ebevedu direhe, yagaranen tumu tininisenahi. Lohodo direhe, tinines sanaluvinahi. Didu tatave, aŋene tonoza ira. Ebeve, loho, nene aŋeneza ira. Liŋakaza ino, aŋene tonoza ira.”

Saya atuvuza tutuve, koro ŋamas nene talile ŋandara aŋaka. Sovo ranarana kasaya koros pezise kanaka. Zaŋi tinininen udures sovolona. Tuvonda atuvuza tuturadu Dedaloŋi. Zoŋi ŋandanen uduriza sara, koronda ŋandas saruno iride hareye.

The boy Ikaro is standing, and watching his father’s work. The danger of touching fails to come to him, and his fingers touch the feathers and soften the wax. He impedes his father’s unusual work with play. After the final feather is placed, Dedalo has a pair of moving, spread-apart wings. The father gives the boy advice, “Ikaro, go via the middle path. If you go towards the sea, its water might make the feathers heavy. If you go towards the sun, its fire might cover the feathers. I command you, take the middle path. Sea, sun, go via the middle of the pair. Follow my back, take the middle path!”

He gives a lesson in flying and then puts a pair of new wings on the boy’s shoulders. The father, with shaking hands, gives the boy a final caress. With moving feathers, the father leaps into the air. Dedalo is like a bird giving a lesson in flying. With moving wings he goes through the air, his eyes looking back at the boy’s wings.

Interlinear and Explanation

Seresere koro Ikaroŋi, sovoya zame kegevedu sarunuŋi.

seresere
seresere
standing
koro
koro
boy
Ikaroŋi
Ikaro=ŋi
Ikaro=MOVE
sovoya
sovo=ya
father=CAUS
zame
za=me
PL.IN=INTO
kegevedu
kegeve=du
work=GOAL
sarunuŋi
sa=runu=ŋi
3SG.RA=eye=MOVE
The boy Ikaro was standing, and watching his father’s work.

Sadu sakemekaza seŋipe, mezi esenadu menepes tinines sakemeka.

sadu
sa=du
3SG.RA=GOAL
sakemekaza
sa=keme=ka=za
3SG.RA=finger=TOUCH=PATH
seŋipe
seŋi=pe
warning=FAIL
mezi
mezi
soft
esenadu
e=se=na=du
3PL.IN=STAY=START=GOAL
menepes
menepe=s
wax=LOC
tinines
tinini=s
feather=LOC
sakemeka
sa=keme=ka
3SG.RA=finger=TOUCH
The danger of touching failed to come to him, and his fingers touched the feathers and softened the wax.

Saya sovonda vubeŋe kegevedu yerenen pabasame.

saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
sovonda
sovo=nda
father=SRC
vubeŋe
vubeŋe
unusual
kegevedu
kegeve=du
work=GOAL
yerenen
yere=nen
game=COM
pabasame
pabasa=me
obstacle=INTO
He impeded his father’s unusual work with play.

Sotos pesize tininiranda uraŋireŋes nene yalono zoŋi ŋandanen Dedaloŋi.

sotos
soto=s
place=LOC
pesize
pesize
final
tininiranda
tinini=ra=nda
feather=GO=SRC
uraŋireŋes
uraŋiraŋi=s
middle.air=LOC
nene
nene
pair
yalono
yalono
spread
zoŋi
zo=ŋi
PL.IN=MOVE
ŋandanen
ŋanda=nen
wing=COM
Dedaloŋi
Dedalo=ŋi
Dedalo=MOVE
After the final feather was placed, Dedalo had a pair of moving, spread-apart wings.

Korodo rondonen sovoŋe, “Ikaro, aŋene tonoza direhe.

korodo
koro=du
boy=GOAL
rondonen
rondo=nen
advice=COM
sovoŋe
sovo=ŋi
father=MOVE
Ikaro
Ikaro
Ikaro
aŋene
aŋene
middle
tonoza
tono=za
path=PATH
direhe
di=ra=hi
2SG=GO=POT
The father gave the boy advice, “Ikaro, go via the middle path.

Ebevedu direhe, yagaranen tumu tininisenahi.

ebevedu
ebeve=du
sea=GOAL
direhe
di=ra=hi
2SG=GO=POT
yagaranen
ya=gara=nen
3PLan=water=COM
tumu
tumu
heavy
tininisenahi
tinini=se=na=hi
feather=STAY=START=POT
If you go towards the sea, its water might make the feathers heavy.

Lohodo direhe, tinines sanaluvinahi.

lohodo
loho=du
sun=GOAL
direhe
di=ra=hi
2SG=GO=POT
tinines
tinini=s
feather=LOC
sanaluvinahi
sa=nalu=vi=na=hi
3SG.RA=fire=OUT=START=POT
If you go towards the sun, its fire might cover the feathers.

Didu tatave, aŋene tonoza ira.

didu
di=du
2SG=GOAL
tatave
tata=vi
command=OUT
aŋene
aŋene
middle
tonoza
tono=za
path=PATH
ira
i=ra
3SG.AN=GO
I command you, take the middle path.

Ebeve, loho, nene aŋeneza ira.

ebeve
ebeve
sea
loho
loho
sun
nene
nene
pair
aŋeneza
aŋene=za
middle=PATH
ira
i=ra
3SG.AN=GO
Sea, sun, go via the middle of the pair.

Liŋakaza ino, aŋene tonoza ira.”

liŋakaza
li=ŋaka=za
1SG=back=PATH
ino
i=no
3SG.AN=COME
aŋene
aŋene
middle
tonoza
tono=za
path=PATH
ira
i=ra
3SG.AN=GO
Follow my back, take the middle path!”

Saya atuvuza tutuve, koro ŋamas nene talile ŋandara aŋaka.

saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
atuvuza
atuvu=za
flying=PATH
tutuve
tutu=vi
lesson=OUT
koro
koro
boy
ŋamas
ŋama=s
shoulder=LOC
nene
nene
pair
talile
talile
new
ŋandara
ŋanda=ra
wing=GO
aŋaka
aŋaka
and.then
He gave a lesson in flying and then put a pair of new wings on the boy’s shoulders.

Sovo ranarana kasaya koros pezise kanaka.

sovo
sovo
father
ranarana
ranarana
shaking
kasaya
kasa=ya
hand=CAUS
koros
koro=s
boy=LOC
pezise
pezise
final
kanaka
kana=ka
endearment=TOUCH
The father, with shaking hands, gave the boy a final caress.

Zaŋi tinininen udures sovolona.

zaŋi
za=ŋi
PL.IN=MOVE
tinininen
tinini=nen
feather=COM
udures
uduri=s
air=LOC
sovolona
sovo=lo=na
father=UP=START
With moving feathers, the father leapt into the air.

Tuvonda atuvuza tuturadu Dedaloŋi.

tuvonda
tuvu=nda
bird=SRC
atuvuza
atuvu=za
flying=PATH
tuturadu
tutu=ra=du
lesson=GO=GOAL
Dedaloŋi
Dedalo=ŋi
Dedalo=MOVE
Dedalo was like a bird giving a lesson in flying.

Zoŋi ŋandanen uduriza sara, koronda ŋandas saruno iride hareye.

zoŋi
zo=ŋi
SGin=MOVE
ŋandanen
ŋanda=nen
wing=COM
uduriza
uduri=za
air=PATH
sara
sa=ra
3SG.RA=GO
koronda
koro=nda
boy=SRC
ŋandas
ŋanda=s
wing=LOC
saruno
sa=runu
3SG.RA=eye
iride
iride
backwards
hareye
ha=ra=yi
3SG.IN=GO=CONT
With moving wings he went through the air, his eyes looking back at the boy’s wings.

Conlangery SHORTS 30: Revising a Grammar

Monday, June 3rd, 2019
George spends some time talking about his recent revisions of his Istatikii grammar, with a focus on organizing writing to serve the needs of the language and the readers. You will find the two drafts of the Istatikii consonant processes below. Script below the fold, see the history here. Welcome to Conlangery, the podcast about... Read more »

Le Lingue Artificiali de Il Trono di Spade: Analisi linguistica dell’Alto Valyriano e del Dothraki

Saturday, June 1st, 2019

Alida Castronovo was born on the 4th of April in 1992, in the city of Palermo, in Sicily. She attended the University of Palermo and obtained a Bachelor’s Degree in Languages and Modern Literature and Linguistic Mediation. She continued her studies at the same university and obtained a Master’s Degree in Western and Eastern Languages and Modern Literature.

Besides her passion for music and TV-series, her interests are to be found in linguistics’ field and in foreign languages. Her passion for languages has always accompanied her throughout her academic history, in which she studied several languages, such as English, German, Chinese and French.

Alida Castronovo è nata il 4 aprile 1992 a Palermo, in Sicilia. Ha frequentato l’Università degli Studi di Palermo, conseguendo una Laurea Triennale in Lingue e Letterature Moderne e Mediazione Linguistica. Ha continuato i suoi studi universitari presso l’Università di Palermo, conseguendo una Laurea Magistrale in Lingue e Letterature Moderne dell’Occidente e dell’Oriente.

Oltre ad essere una grande appassionata di musica e serie tv, i suoi interessi spaziano anche nel campo della linguistica e delle lingue straniere. La sua passione per le lingue l’ha accompagnata durante tutto il suo percorso accademico all’interno del quale ha studiato diverse lingue, quali l’inglese, il tedesco, il cinese e il francese.

Abstract

Nowadays, constructed languages are catching linguistic research’s attention more and more. But, such a complex field does not enjoy the prestige it deserves yet. The purpose of this thesis is that of demolishing, through knowledge, scepticism’s barriers that have always accompanied this form of art, by highlighting the way the TV-show Game of Thrones’ constructed languages (Dothraki and High Valyrian) are destroying the prejudice, little by little.

In Chapter I, basic concept concerning conlangs will be presented by investigating their origins, their propulsive thrusts and by providing noteworthy examples, such as Volapük or Esperanto.

Chapter II provides the analysis of the most famous examples of constructed languages created for literature and cinematography, such as Tolkien’s elvish language (Quenya), Paul Frommer’s Na’vi and Mark Okrand’s Klingon.

Chapter III offers an in-depth analysis on Game of Thrones’ constructed languages, Dothraki and High Valyrian, created by David J. Peterson. In this chapter, every linguistic aspect of these languages will be analysed, with detailed tables and explanatory examples.

Finally, in Chapter IV, we provide an analysis of Game of Thrones’ languages, whose aim is that of evaluating their linguistic adequacy from a typological point of view. In doing so, we refer to Greenberg’s typological classification of languages. Therefore, Dothraki and High Valyrian will be analysed and filtered through Greenberg’s Implicational Universals of Languages. (Italian Text)

Le lingue artificiali stanno acquisendo sempre più valore, attirando sempre più le attenzioni della ricerca linguistica. Un settore così complesso e articolato non gode ancora però del prestigio con cui lo si dovrebbe guardare. Obiettivo di questa trattazione è quello di abbattere, attraverso la conoscenza, le barriere dello scetticismo che da sempre accompagna questa vera e propria arte, mettendo in luce il processo di annientamento del pregiudizio che scompare anche grazie al successo delle lingue artificiali create per la serie tvGame of Thrones.

Nel Capitolo I verranno affrontati i concetti di base riguardanti il mondo delle lingue artificiali, indagandone origini, motivazioni e presentando alcuni tra gli esempi più noti, come il volapük o l’esperanto.

Nel Capitolo II verranno presentati i grandi esempi di lingue artificiali create per la letteratura o per la cinematografia, come la lingua elfica di Tolkien, il na’vi di Paul Frommer e il klingon di Mark Okrand.

Il Capitolo III scenderà più a fondo nell’analisi delle lingue artificiali create da David J. Peterson per la serie tv Game of Thrones, l’alto valyriano e il dothraki. In questo capitolo verranno analizzati tutti gli aspetti linguistici noti, correlati di tabelle esplicative ed esempi chiarificatori.

Infine, nel Capitolo IV viene proposta un’analisi delle lingue di Game of Thrones volta a valutarne l’adeguatezza linguistica da un punto di vista tipologico, facendo riferimento alla classificazione tipologica delle lingue che vede come suo principale teorico Joseph Greenberg. Le lingue in questione verranno, dunque, analizzate attraverso il filtro delle implicazioni postulate negli universali linguistici greenberghiani.

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