deye

February 16th, 2017 by Sylvia
A. deye=S S go out, leave, fade
B. deye=A=O A make O go out, leave, fade
C. auxiliary V-deye make V

Deye is derived from the verb da ‘go’ and the obsolete particle ye ‘out’.

Deye is not used with the auxiliary no.

Deye as an auxiliary is the strong causative, implying a use of force,  not necessarily physical, to make V happen. It can be used with any verb.

Deye-deye=A=O is ‘A make O fade, leave, disappear’.

Sentences with deye as a main verb.

Sentences with deye as an auxiliary verb.

Tomorrow: nome.

lexiconsarelove: hello, tumblr! the creators of the grammar pile have recently finished version 1.0…

February 15th, 2017 by surullinensaukko

lexiconsarelove:

hello, tumblr! the creators of the grammar pile have recently finished version 1.0 of the dictionary heap! containing dictionaries to a whole heck of a lot of languages around the world. and here are the links:

part 1

part 2

if you have something you’d like to add, or any other sort of comment, message us at this tumblr. and if you have trouble seeing a file within a folder try refreshing your computer. 

happy language learning!

Not a bad conlanging idea, but a great resource nonetheless, so perhaps you can forgive me the lapse in content.

dape & seppe

February 15th, 2017 by Sylvia
A. auxiliary V-dape V again
B. auxiliary V-seppe fail to V
C. dape-seppe=S S stumble, trip

Dape and seppe occur only as auxiliaries, except for dape-seppe ‘stumble, trip’, which is the only time dape appears as a primary verb. The obstacle stumbled upon or tripped over is marked with su.

Dape as an auxiliary can also mean ‘back, behind, after’ as in

D. da-dape=A=O A follow, go after O
E. se-dape=A(=O) A say back, reply to O

Dape is derived from da plus the particle pe ‘from’.

Seppe is used to mean try but fail to V, or intend but then end up not V-ing. Some less transparent constructions are:

F. da-seppe=S S avoid, shun, fail to go (AVOIDED=du)
G. se-seppe=S S misspeak

Seppe is derived from sede and pe.

Sentences with dape.

Sentences with seppe.

Tomorrow: deye.

#493

February 14th, 2017 by kindaquebecois

There are separate second person singular pronouns for people who you have hugged versus people you have not hugged.

data & dello

February 14th, 2017 by Sylvia
A. data=S S fall
B. data=A=O A make O fall
C. dello=S S rise
D. dello=A=O A make O rise; A raise, lift O
E. data-data=S S fall and fall
F. dello-dello=S S rise and rise

Data is da plus the obsolete particle ta ‘down’ and dello is degi plus the obsolete particle lo ‘up’. Data implies a non-volitional downward movement in contrast to nota. Dello is neutral in volitionality, probably because of gravity. It takes effort to overcome gravity. Again, location wherein the motion is taking place is marked with su and destinations are marked with du.

Neither verb uses the auxiliaries nolo or nota.

Dello can be compounded with the body part instrumentals kuwu ‘hands’ and bana ‘feet’ to produce:

G. kuwu-dello=A=O A pick up O
H. bana-dello=A=O A kick (up) O

Dello can also be compounded with doŋi ‘eye’ to produce:

I. doŋi-dello=S S wake up; S open one’s eyes

Doŋi-dello is always intransitive. It is possible that kuwu-dello and bana-dello have intransitive forms ‘raise one’s hand(s)’ and ‘lift one’s foot’, but I’ve had no cause to use those yet, so maybe not.

Sentences with data.

Sentences with dello.

Tomorrow: dape and seppe.

Evidence of a Substrate in Inraj Sargalk

February 14th, 2017 by Miekko
Inraj island is a relatively large island with a population of Sargalk speakers isolated from the main bulk of Sargalk. There are temporary Sargalk settlements in closer vicinity, but the archipelago chain linking Inraj to the rest is not very suitable for long term settlement. The location is east of the main Sargalk homelands.

There are a few indications of a linguistic substrate:

  • Nom-acc alignment, with the lative serving as accusative and dative. For some nouns, the pegative has become nominative, for most, the absolutive has become nominative.
  • Personal names use a simpler phonology, consisting of CV syllables (with word final C permitted as well), and only the vowels /i a e u/. The consonant system also is somewhat simplified in the naming system. Names include Kalit, Rukan, Melas, Nisa, Mase, Vinus, Mepus, Kisis, Venut, Lanut, Xenut, Lak, Karan.
  • The verbal system has been reorganized to use a fair share of auxiliaries.
  • In addition to personal names, more than 180 words without cognates in any SDB language.
    • Out of these some 80 are names for places, and 80 designate animals, plants, social status, mythic beings, verbs and nouns related to subsistence and ritual, as well as astronomical phenomena. Two dozen are different profanities.
    • Many of these words have a pitch accent system in place.
    • Some of these words have unusual morphophonology going on, including vowel harmony.
  • Some early loans from Proto-Cwarmin have gone through different changes than in other branches of Sargalk, hinting at being mangled by a different phonology.
  • The indefinite pronoun system is significantly different.
  • Loss of gender, despite no sound changes eradicating gender markers; animacy is much more central.
  • A number of constructions that are not attested anywhere else in the Sargalk area, nor do they have cognates elsewhere.
There are also some ethnological and anthropological reasons to suggest the Inraj Sargalk are partially an assimilated population:
  • different houses
  • different pottery and techniques for weaving baskets
  • certain differences in customs, superstitions and religion
  • dogs are only semi-domesticated
  • different boat designs

nolo & nota

February 13th, 2017 by Sylvia
A. nolo=S S climb, ascend
B. nota=S S descend (volitionally)
C. nolo=A=O A make O climb, ascend
D. nota=A=O A make O descend
E. nolo=CS CS be more ATTRIBUTE
F. nota=CS CS be less ATTRIBUTE
G. auxiliary V-nolo V more (and more), increasingly V
H. auxiliary V-nota V less (and less), decreasingly V
I. nolo-nolo=S S climb higher and higher
J. nota-nota=S S descend lower and lower

These two verbs, opposites, pattern together. Nolo is no plus the obsolete particle lo ‘up’ and nota is no plus the obsolete particle ta ‘down’. Nota is never used to mean ‘fall’ as it implies deliberate descent. Nolo likewise denotes deliberate ascent.

As auxiliaries, neither is used with the verbs of stance. Nor are they used with each other.

Sentences with nolo as a main verb.

Sentences with nota as a main verb.

Sentences with nolo as an auxiliary verb.

Sentences with nota as an auxiliary verb.

Tomorrow: data and dello.

#492

February 12th, 2017 by matan-matika

Your language’s writing system does not cover all possible words, only ones used frequently in poëtry: with verbs like “feel” and “speak,“ with nouns like "rain,” “skin,” “words,” and “lips," and prepositions like "on.” The rest is still unwritten.

no

February 12th, 2017 by Sylvia
A. no=S S come, go along
B. no=A=O A send for, summon O
C. auxiliary V-no come and V
D. imperative no! V-phrase, come!

No is a single-syllable verb meaning ‘come’. In the rare cases when it is not followed by an auxiliary nor has a rational animate subject, the form of no is nodu. Arguments for no are the same as with da. The main difference between da and no is deictic. No implies motion towards the speaker or observer. It is also used for motion along a path parallel to something else.

no can be used as an auxiliary to mean ‘come and V’. Like da, it is not used with the verbs of stance (sede, tene, degi) nor with any verbs denoting mental activity (dullo, callo, canno). It is also not used with da or with itself.

Kuno-no, rather than meaning ‘come and get’ is used to mean ‘come with’ or ‘bring’.

Imperative no! is a single syllable word, which is allowed as it is considered an interjection. It can be appended to a verb phrase to make it imperative. For example: Kuno=di=nu, no! ‘You get the thing, do!’ or ‘Get the thing!’. This is more polite than using da! It might be used by a parent towards a child, for example, or an elder person towards a much younger person. It has the urgency of da! but is tempered by affection.

Sentences with no as a main verb.

Sentences with no as an auxiliary verb.

Sentences with no! the interjection.

Tomorrow: nolo and nota.

da

February 11th, 2017 by Sylvia
A. da=S S go
B. da=A=O A send O; A make O go
C. auxiliary V-da go and V
D. imperative da! V-phrase, do!

Da is a single-syllable verb meaning ‘go’. In the rare cases when it is not followed by an auxiliary nor has a rational animate subject, the form of da is dodu. Arguments for da include the subject, the person or thing going, and the following possible peripheral phrases: the point of origin marked with pe, the destination marked with du, a companion marked with ne, a path of travel also marked with ne, and a location wherein this is all taking place marked with su.

Da can be used as an auxiliary to mean go and V. It is not used with the verbs of stance (sede, tene, degi) nor with any verbs denoting mental activity (dullo, callo, canno). It can be used with itself da-da, which can mean ‘travel’ (with an A set subject) or ‘wander’ (with an O set subject).

Dunno-da ‘go and see’ generally is used to mean ‘hunt’, and kuno-da, rather than meaning ‘go and get’ is used to mean ‘go with’ or ‘take’.

Imperative da! is a single syllable word, which is allowed as it is considered an interjection. It can be appended to a verb phrase or a clause to make it imperative. For example: Kuno=di=nu, da! ‘You get the thing, do!’ or ‘Get the thing!’. This is the most basic and strongest form of imperative, and is not considered to be polite. It would never be used towards someone one has any respect for.

Sentences with da as a main verb.

Sentences with da as an auxiliary verb.

Sentences with da! the interjection.

Tomorrow: no.