Detail #380: A New Spot For Alignment

May 30th, 2019 by Miekko
I recently came across this, a post whose content I am not really going to comment (due to the feeling that I don't know enough about this particular topic.) However, it sparked an idea in my mind:

Why not make an alignment-like system with regards to symmetrical vs. reciprocal actions? Some verbs could imaginably only take one or the other type, and here we could get an interesting set of situations:
  • verbs that are exclusively symmetrical
  • verbs that are exclusively reciprocal
  • verbs that can be either one or the other
Let's use s and r for arguments of exclusively s/r verbs, and S and R for verbs that can take one or the other. The way any particular marking works may differ from the way others are marked: reciprocal pronouns with differential object marking distinguishing different meanings, verbal affixes, particles, auxiliaries, adverbs, etc.
Potential solutions:

Trivial bipartite:
s = S
r = R

Asymmetrical bipartite:
s = S = r
R

or

S
s = R = r

Tripartite I:
s = r
S
R

Tripartite II:
s = S
r
R

or

r = R
s
S

Diagonal Tripartite (unlikely)
s = R
r
S

or

S = r
R
s

Unhelpful Tripartite (unlikely)
s
r
S = R

Quadripartite:s
S
r
R
One thing that feels realistic, though, is that for some verbs, you may also have occasional exceptions like so:
Exceptional Marking I
S' = R
R' = other way that coincides with some other thing in the language?
The ' there marks that these are exceptionally marked ones, and that the "R" on the right hand of the equals mark stands for the marking, not the meaning.

Detail #380: A New Spot For Alignment

May 30th, 2019 by Miekko
I recently came across this, a post whose content I am not really going to comment (due to the feeling that I don't know enough about this particular topic.) However, it sparked an idea in my mind:

Why not make an alignment-like system with regards to symmetrical vs. reciprocal actions? Some verbs could imaginably only take one or the other type, and here we could get an interesting set of situations:
  • verbs that are exclusively symmetrical
  • verbs that are exclusively reciprocal
  • verbs that can be either one or the other
Let's use s and r for arguments of exclusively s/r verbs, and S and R for verbs that can take one or the other. The way any particular marking works may differ from the way others are marked: reciprocal pronouns with differential object marking distinguishing different meanings, verbal affixes, particles, auxiliaries, adverbs, etc.
Potential solutions:

Trivial bipartite:
s = S
r = R

Asymmetrical bipartite:
s = S = r
R

or

S
s = R = r

Tripartite I:
s = r
S
R

Tripartite II:
s = S
r
R

or

r = R
s
S

Diagonal Tripartite (unlikely)
s = R
r
S

or

S = r
R
s

Unhelpful Tripartite (unlikely)
s
r
S = R

Quadripartite:s
S
r
R
One thing that feels realistic, though, is that for some verbs, you may also have occasional exceptions like so:
Exceptional Marking I
S' = R
R' = other way that coincides with some other thing in the language?
The ' there marks that these are exceptionally marked ones, and that the "R" on the right hand of the equals mark stands for the marking, not the meaning.

Nuvuza Tani 3

May 27th, 2019 by Sylvia

Text and Translation

Yozonda siŋi yaha medes luŋera. Mede yaha satas ŋelona luŋido zenizeni kumu runuŋe. Luŋeya peretenen mede kigivinda ono davara. Sasataza hara. Saya zimivina, zimenda kerekeremena.

Urinona, inda ŋono zeye oloŋira, lamana tene layisena. Tesi tarataratana, laka kahes Nuvora. Tana reŋirana, keses igaravena. Lakaza tana reŋirayi, inda pezes ŋono pobomo ŋono pidi ŋono perete ŋono muru era. Tana reŋirayi, inda pezes lakara. Medenda medes tanatana Nuvora, ŋiri mede yaha satas oloyo sape. Tana reŋirayi, inda pezes Nuvu ira. Pezes yalata zara Nuvu sazarudu luŋi sareŋe.

Nuvonda nuvume, inda nuvunuvu saruviyi.

The star goes from there to a tall smooth tree. The man expectantly watches the star climb the smooth trunk. The star takes a large piece of bark with a knife. It goes around their body. They start to sing, and from the song they start to make magic.

The wind starts to blow, it makes many dark clouds come, and the whole sky starts to be hidden. A little bit of rain starts to fall and Nuvu goes into the hut. The river starts to flow and it covers the campsite with water. The river flows around the hut and it washes away the many spears, the many baskets, the many knives, and the many mats. The river continues to flow and washes away the hut. Nuvu quickly goes from tree to tree, and he fails to climb the trees’ smooth trunks. The river continues to flow and washes away Nuvu. The star listens to Nuvu’s voice, which is dying away.

Nuvu is changed into an owl and he continues to cry mournfully.

Interlinear and Explanation

Yozonda siŋi yaha medes luŋera.

yozonda
yozo=nda
there=SRC
siŋi
siŋi
tall
yaha
yaha
smooth
medes
mede=s
tree=LOC
luŋera
luŋi=ra
star=GO
The star goes from there to a tall smooth tree.

Mede yaha satas ŋelona luŋido zenizeni kumu runuŋe.

mede
mede
tree
yaha
yaha
smooth
satas
sata=s
body=LOC
ŋelona
ŋe=lo=na
SG.AN=UP=START
luŋido
luŋi=du
star=GOAL
zenizeni
zenizeni
expectant
kumu
kumu
man
runuŋe
runu=ŋi
eye=MOVE
The man expectantly watches the star climb the smooth trunk.

Luŋeya peretenen mede kigivinda ono davara.

luŋeya
luŋi=ya
star=CAUS
peretenen
perete=nen
knife=COM
mede
mede
tree
kigivinda
kigivi=nda
skin=SRC
ono
ono
big
davara
dava=ra
piece=GO
The star takes a large piece of bark with a knife.

Sasataza hara.

sasataza
sa=sata=za
3SG.RA=body=PATH
hara
ha=ra
3SGin=GO
It goes around their body.

Saya zimivina, zimenda kerekeremena.

saya
sa=ya
3SG.RA=CAUS
zimivina
zimi=vi=na
music=OUT=START
zimenda
zimi=nda
music=SRC
kerekeremena
kerekere=me=na
magic=INTO=START
They start to sing, and from the song they start to make magic.

Urinona, inda ŋono zeye oloŋira, lamana tene layisena.

urinona
uri=no=na
wind=COME=START
inda
i=nda
3SG.AN=SRC
ŋono
ŋono
many
zeye
zeye
dark
oloŋira
oloŋi=ra
cloud=GO
lamana
lamana
hidden
tene
tene
all
layisena
layi=se=na
sky=STAY=START
The wind starts to blow, it makes many dark clouds come, and the whole sky starts to be hidden.

Tesi tarataratana, laka kahes Nuvora.

tesi
tesi
few
tarataratana
taratara=ta=na
rain=DOWN=START
laka
laka
hut
kahes
kahi=s
belly=LOC
Nuvora
Nuvo=ra
Nuvu=GO
A little bit of rain starts to fall and Nuvu goes into the hut.

Tana reŋirana, keses igaravena.

tana
tana
flowing
reŋirana
reŋi=ra=na
river=GO=START
keses
kese=s
camp=LOC
igaravena
i=gara=vi=na
3SG.AN=water=OUT=START
The river starts to flow and it covers the campsite with water.

Water gara is (here) a part of the river, and so possessed.

Lakaza tana reŋirayi, inda pezes ŋono pobomo ŋono pidi ŋono perete ŋono muru era.

lakaza
laka=za
hut=PATH
tana
tana
flowing
reŋirayi
reŋi=ra=yi
river=GO=CONT
inda
i=nda
3SG.AN=SRC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
ŋono
ŋono
many
pobomo
pobomo
spear
ŋono
ŋono
many
pidi
pidi
basket
ŋono
ŋono
many
perete
perete
knife
ŋono
ŋono
many
muru
muru
mat
era
e=ra
3PL.IN=GO
The river flows around the hut and it washes away the many spears, the many baskets, the many knives, and the many mats.

Tana reŋirayi, inda pezes lakara.

tana
tana
flowing
reŋirayi
reŋi=ra=yi
river=GO=CONT
inda
i=nda
3SG.AN=SRC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
lakara
laka=ra
hut=GO
The river continues to flow and washes away the hut.

Medenda medes tanatana Nuvora, ŋiri mede yaha satas oloyo sape.

medenda
mede=nda
tree=SRC
medes
mede=s
tree=LOC
tanatana
tanatana
quick
Nuvora
Nuvu=ra
Nuvu=GO
ŋiri
ŋiri
some
mede
mede
tree
yaha
yaha
smooth
satas
sata=s
body=LOC
oloyo
oloyo
upwards
sape
sa=pe
3SG.RA=FAIL
Nuvu quickly goes from tree to tree, and he fails to climb the trees’ smooth trunks.

Tana reŋirayi, inda pezes Nuvu ira.

tana
tana
flowing
reŋirayi
reŋi=ra=yi
river=GO=CONT
inda
i=nda
3SG.AN=SRC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
Nuvu
Nuvu
Nuvu
ira
i=ra
3SG.AN=GO
The river continues to flow and washes away Nuvu.

Pezes yalata zara Nuvu sazarudu luŋi sareŋe.

pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
yalata
yalata
dying
zara
za=ra
PL.IN=GO
Nuvu
Nuvu
Nuvu
sazarudu
sazaru=du
voice=GOAL
luŋi
luŋi
star
sareŋe
sara=ŋi
ear=MOVE=CONT
The star listens to Nuvu’s voice, which is dying away.

Nuvonda nuvume, inda nuvunuvu saruviyi.

Nuvonda
Nuvu=nda
Nuvu=SRC
nuvume
nuvu=me
owl=INTO
inda
i=nda
3SG.AN=SRC
nuvunuvu
nuvunuvu
mournful
saruviyi
saru=vi=yi
noise=OUT=CONT
Nuvu is changed into an owl and he continues to cry mournfully.

Detail #379: Inverse Alignment of an Unusual Type

May 26th, 2019 by Miekko
I think I promised to stop doing alignment things a good while ago, but I am like some kind of addict I guess with regards to alignment.

So, ... let's consider participles. Let's assume participles are uniformly created by affixing some morpheme onto the verb stem. All verbs form their participle this way.

Let us reuse English words, and create the morphology as we go. The participle marker might be -b.

Thus
run - runeb
go - goeb
live - liveb
do - doeb
take - takeb
Now we run into the inverse alignment bit, and here we get the unusual twist. Instead of having an animacy hierarchy, we have each verb having a preferred voice. 

'Take', for instance, might prefer active, 'catch' might prefer passive. This is not so much regarding what one is likely to be doing, or even close to an animacy hierarchy, but close to which sense is likely to be used. You are more likely as a hunter-gatherer, for instance, to catch things and talk of things you've caught, than you are to talk of things that are catching things.

The inverse marker then would be a separate morpheme altogether, maybe at the opposite end of the word from the participle morpheme. It could also serve some other role in finite verbs (say, aspectual or temporal or some kind of congruence-like thing?) 
Let's imagine the inverse morpheme is a prefix: en-.
taking: takeb
taken: entakeb

caught: catcheb
catching: encatcheb
Now we get to a part where we can start varying our approach: intransitives. Maybe they're split? Maybe the split is a differential way of marking things (e.g. volition), or maybe it's lexically split.

Maybe intransitives exclusively use the marker that normally marks inverse? So now you'd get
enrun, engo
Just some thoughts.

Detail #379: Inverse Alignment of an Unusual Type

May 26th, 2019 by Miekko
I think I promised to stop doing alignment things a good while ago, but I am like some kind of addict I guess with regards to alignment.

So, ... let's consider participles. Let's assume participles are uniformly created by affixing some morpheme onto the verb stem. All verbs form their participle this way.

Let us reuse English words, and create the morphology as we go. The participle marker might be -b.

Thus
run - runeb
go - goeb
live - liveb
do - doeb
take - takeb
Now we run into the inverse alignment bit, and here we get the unusual twist. Instead of having an animacy hierarchy, we have each verb having a preferred voice. 

'Take', for instance, might prefer active, 'catch' might prefer passive. This is not so much regarding what one is likely to be doing, or even close to an animacy hierarchy, but close to which sense is likely to be used. You are more likely as a hunter-gatherer, for instance, to catch things and talk of things you've caught, than you are to talk of things that are catching things.

The inverse marker then would be a separate morpheme altogether, maybe at the opposite end of the word from the participle morpheme. It could also serve some other role in finite verbs (say, aspectual or temporal or some kind of congruence-like thing?) 
Let's imagine the inverse morpheme is a prefix: en-.
taking: takeb
taken: entakeb

caught: catcheb
catching: encatcheb
Now we get to a part where we can start varying our approach: intransitives. Maybe they're split? Maybe the split is a differential way of marking things (e.g. volition), or maybe it's lexically split.

Maybe intransitives exclusively use the marker that normally marks inverse? So now you'd get
enrun, engo
Just some thoughts.

Nuvuza Tani 2

May 24th, 2019 by Sylvia

Text and Translation

Nara zales kines luŋeta baŋibaŋi. Alaza kalatepe gohotepe lakatepe sara. Sarunos pezes yutonda seleno. Nuvonda yutu selese. Hadas tanatana luŋera.

Luŋeya sorove, “Diya liyes tesi gohorahi?” Kumoya rusuve, “Be! Liyes harazidu linda viri gohose.”

“Dinda yutoza tesi kalanen liŋinahi?” “Kalanen liŋizidu viri yutuse.”

“Ŋiri kele muroza dika. Dinda yutoza tesi kalanen liŋinahido vene zeninen diŋi, liya lisataza nara mururazi.” Nuvoya ruluve, “Enda pezes ira! Lidu ese, kegevenen mape vekeve yendodo evu.”

One night a star falls to earth. They go for a time, cold, hungry, and shelter-less. They see light from a campfire in the distance. The light is Nuvu’s campfire. The star hurries to it.

The star says, “Could you give me some food?” The man replies, “No! There is not enough of my food for me to eat.”

“Could I make myself a little bit warm near your campfire?” “There is not enough campfire to make me warm.”

“You have some fine mats.You did not allow that I could make make myself a little bit warm near your campfire; I will put one mat around my body.” Nuvu shouts, “Go away from those! They are for me and not for lazy people who do not work.“

Interlinear and Explanation

Nara zales kines luŋeta baŋibaŋi.

nara
nara
one
zales
zali=s
night=LOC
kines
kini=s
land=LOC
luŋeta
luŋi=ta
star=DOWN
baŋibaŋi
baŋibaŋi
unexpectedly
One night a star falls to earth.

Alaza kalatepe gohotepe lakatepe sara.

alaza
ala=za
now=PATH
kalatepe
kala-tepe
heat-less
gohotepe
goho-tepe
food-less
lakatepe
laka-tepe
hut-less
sa=ra
sa=ra
3SG.RA=GO
They go for a time, cold, hungry, and shelterless.

Sarunos pezes yutonda seleno.

sarunos
sa=runu=s
3SG.RA=eye=LOC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
yutonda
yutu=nda
campfire=SRC
seleno
sele=no
light=COME
They see light from a campfire in the distance.

Nuvonda yutu selese.

Nuvonda
Nuvu=nda
Nuvu=SRC
yutu
yutu
campfire
selese
sele=se
light=STAY
The light is Nuvu’s campfire.

Hadas tanatana luŋera.

hadas
hada=s
3SG.IN=LOC
tanatana
tanatana
quick
luŋera
luŋi=ra
star=GO
The star hurries to it.

Luŋeya sorove, “Diya liyes tesi gohorahi?”

luŋeya
luŋi=ya
star=CAUS
sorove
soro=vi
word=OUT
diya
di=ya
2SG=CAUS
liyes
liye=s
1SG=LOC
tesi
tesi
few
gohorahi
goho=ra=hi
food=GO=POT
The star says, “Could you give me some food?”

Kumoya rusuve, “Be! Liyes harazidu linda viri gohose.”

kumoya
kumu=ya
man=CAUS
rusuve
rusu=vi
reply=OUT
be!
be!
no!
liyes
liye=s
1SG=LOC
harazidu
ha=ra=zi=du
3SG.IN=GO=FUT=GOAL
linda
li=nda
1SG=SRC
viri
viri
not.enough
gohose
goho=se
food=STAY
The man replies, “No! There is not enough of my food for me to eat.”

“Dinda yutoza tesi kalanen liŋinahi?”

dinda
di=nda
2SG=SRC
yutoza
yutu=za
campfire=PATH
tesi
tesi
few
kalanen
kala=nen
heat=COM
liŋinahi
li=ŋi=na=hi
1SG=MOVE=START=POT
“Could I make myself a little bit warm near your campfire?”

“Kalanen liŋizidu viri yutuse.”

kalanen
kala=nen
heat=COM
liŋizidu
li=ŋi=zi=du
1SG=MOVE=FUT=GOAL
viri
viri
not
yutuse
yutu=se
enough
“There is not enough campfire to make me warm.”

“Ŋiri kele muroza dika.

ŋiri
ŋiri
some
kele
kele
fine
muroza
muru=za
mat=PATH
dika
di=ka
2SG=TOUCH
“You have some fine mats.

Dinda yutoza tesi kalanen liŋinahido vene zeninen diŋi, liya lisataza nara mururazi.”

dinda
di=nda
2SG=SRC
yutoza
yutu=za
campfire=PATH
tesi
tesi
few
kalanen
kala=nen
heat=COM
liŋinahido
li=ŋi=na=hi=du
1SG=MOVE=START=POT=GOAL
vene
vene
none
zeninen
zeni=nen
expectation=COM
diŋi
di=ŋi
2SG=MOVE
liya
li=ya
1SG=CAUS
lisataza
li=sata=za
1SG=body=PATH
nara
nara
one
mururazi
muru=ra=zi
mat=GO=FUT
You did not allow that I could make make myself a little bit warm near your campfire; I will put one mat around my body.”

Nuvoya ruluve, “Enda pezes ira!

Nuvoya
Nuvu=ya
Nuvu=CAUS
ruluve
rulu=vi
shout=OUT
enda
e=nda
3PL.IN=SRC
pezes
pezi=s
away=LOC
ira
i=ra
3SG.AN=GO
Nuvu shouts, “Go away from those!

Lidu ese, kegevenen mape vekeve yendodo evu.”

lidu
li=du
1SG=GOAL
ese
e=se
3PL.IN=STAY
kegevenen
kegeve=nen
work=COM
mape
ma=pe
PL.AN=FAIL
vekeve
vekeve
lazy
yendodo
yenda=du
people=GOAL
evu
e=vu
3PL.IN=NOT
They are for me and not for lazy people who do not work.“

An Entirely Unrelated Thing

May 22nd, 2019 by Miekko
I mentioned a while ago two life changes that conspire to keep me posting a bit less; indeed, the two changes keep doing so, and due to the nice perks of my new job, I also got a third life change: I've started working out. So that also keeps me a bit occupied, but I think it might be good for the mental faculties in the long run and thus probably will be beneficial for my creativity as well.

However, what I really wanted to mention - and this is a thing I intended to do way back but forgot about in all the every day hassle - is the instagram account of one of the life changes. For readers who are so inclined, meet Oswald the tibbie.

Currently, I am really thinking a lot about my main big conlangs, and this is also reducing the posting frequency significantly. Trying to figure out how to make Bryatesle, Sargaĺk and Dairwueh descend from a single proto-language – and the same for Ŋʒädär and Ćwarmin - does take quite an effort, and developing them all simultaneously also takes some thinking.

Finally, a personal project I've been doing for a while, and which I intend to make into a full-fledged, uh, thing, is my microtonal pitch perception and theory exercise webapp. Currently it is in an alpha stage, and the sound only works on firefox and edge (maybe safari?). Future features will be:
  • persistent states (i.e. it will remember where you left)
  • better sound that also works in chrome
  • a better menu system
  • a login system
  • the app will gather stats about progress in order maybe to be able to improve the exercises to have a better effect?
  • achievements
  • more content, esp. with regards to chord progressions
  • Just Intonation, well-temperaments, more equal temperaments
    • Just Intonation will almost necessitate some type of hexagonal key layout as an option in addition to the piano-based layouts
  • some generative content
  • some ability for the users to generate their own exercises
  • The basic engine also seems rather well-suited for some kind of 'microtonal scale and chord encyclopedia' type of use.
I figure the microtonal pitch perception exercise thing may be of some interest to conworlders. However, I am also interested in hearing feedback! Known issues at the time are:
  • sound engine timing
  • sound quality in general
  • navigability
So, don't complain about those quite yet ...  they're under work.

    An Entirely Unrelated Thing

    May 22nd, 2019 by Miekko
    I mentioned a while ago two life changes that conspire to keep me posting a bit less; indeed, the two changes keep doing so, and due to the nice perks of my new job, I also got a third life change: I've started working out. So that also keeps me a bit occupied, but I think it might be good for the mental faculties in the long run and thus probably will be beneficial for my creativity as well.

    However, what I really wanted to mention - and this is a thing I intended to do way back but forgot about in all the every day hassle - is the instagram account of one of the life changes. For readers who are so inclined, meet Oswald the tibbie.

    Currently, I am really thinking a lot about my main big conlangs, and this is also reducing the posting frequency significantly. Trying to figure out how to make Bryatesle, Sargaĺk and Dairwueh descend from a single proto-language – and the same for Ŋʒädär and Ćwarmin - does take quite an effort, and developing them all simultaneously also takes some thinking.

    Finally, a personal project I've been doing for a while, and which I intend to make into a full-fledged, uh, thing, is my microtonal pitch perception and theory exercise webapp. Currently it is in an alpha stage, and the sound only works on firefox and edge (maybe safari?). Future features will be:
    • persistent states (i.e. it will remember where you left)
    • better sound that also works in chrome
    • a better menu system
    • a login system
    • the app will gather stats about progress in order maybe to be able to improve the exercises to have a better effect?
    • achievements
    • more content, esp. with regards to chord progressions
    • Just Intonation, well-temperaments, more equal temperaments
      • Just Intonation will almost necessitate some type of hexagonal key layout as an option in addition to the piano-based layouts
    • some generative content
    • some ability for the users to generate their own exercises
    • The basic engine also seems rather well-suited for some kind of 'microtonal scale and chord encyclopedia' type of use.
    I figure the microtonal pitch perception exercise thing may be of some interest to conworlders. However, I am also interested in hearing feedback! Known issues at the time are:
    • sound engine timing
    • sound quality in general
    • navigability
    So, don't complain about those quite yet ...  they're under work.

      Nuvuza Tani 1

      May 22nd, 2019 by Sylvia

      Text and Translation

      Nuvu berenen kumoza zose tanise. Sama basa sonose, sama karu vususe. Ŋono alaza yendanen nikevas saŋiyinda samas etede piŋimeyi, pezes sara kodu, venendanen saŋena. Yendanen nikevas saŋiyihi, saya namanen ŋiri kegevemiyizeza namas zeninoheza samas delino. Goleza nara kumu saŋiye, saya kuŋinen zase ŋiri kegeveme. Goleza venendanen saŋiyinda sanda laka azis lenese. Kozos ŋono pobomoza ŋono pideza ŋono pereteza ŋono muroza saka.

      This story is one which is about a man named Nuvu. He has a bad head and a rough tongue. Through more time spent in the vicinity of people he is filled with pain, so he goes away and lives with nobody. If he continues to stay near people, he thinks that they will expect that he will continue to make work with them. For a long time he lives as a solitary man, and he works as he wanted. After a long time living with nobody, there is a pile outside his hut. In there he has many spears, many baskets, many knives, and many mats.

      Interlinear and Explanation

      Nuvu berenen kumoza zose tanise.

      Nuvu
      nuvu
      Nuvu
      berenen
      bere=nen
      name=COM
      kumoza
      kumu=za
      man=PATH
      zose
      zo=se
      SGin=STAY
      tanise
      tani=se
      story=STAY
      The story is one which is about a man named Nuvu.

      Sama basa sonose, sama karu vususe.

      sama
      sama
      3SG.RA
      basa
      basa
      bad
      sonose
      sono=se
      head=STAY
      sama
      sama
      3SG.RA
      karu
      karu
      rough
      vususe
      vusu=se
      tongue=STAY
      He has a bad head and a rough tongue.

      Ŋono alaza yendanen nikevas saŋiyinda samas etede piŋimeyi, pezes sara kodu, venendanen saŋena.

      ŋono
      ŋono
      more
      alaza
      ala=za
      time=PATH
      yendanen
      yenda=nen
      people=COM
      nikevas
      nikeva=s
      vicinity=LOC
      saŋiyinda
      sa=ŋi=yi=nda
      3SG.RA=MOVE=CONT=SRC
      samas
      sama=s
      3SG.RA=LOC
      etede
      etede
      full
      piŋimeyi
      piŋi=me=yi
      pain=IN=CONT
      pezes
      pezi=s
      away=LOC
      sara
      sa=ra
      3SG.RA=GO
      kodu
      kodu
      so
      venendanen
      venenda=nen
      nobody=COM
      saŋena
      sa=ŋi=na
      3SG.RA=MOVE=START
      Through more time spent in the vicinity of people he is filled with pain, so he goes away and lives with nobody.

      Someday I am going to figure out why some time phrases take =s and some take =za. I know there is a reason, I am simply not quite sure how to explain it.

      Yendanen nikevas saŋiyihi, saya namanen ŋiri kegevemiyizeza namas zeninoheza samas delino.

      yendanen
      yenda=nen
      people=COM
      nikevas
      nikeva=s
      vicinity=LOC
      saŋiyihi
      sa=ŋi=yi=hi
      3SG.RA=MOVE=CONT=POT
      saya
      sa=ya
      3SG.RA=CAUS
      namanen
      nama=nen
      3PLra=COM
      ŋiri
      ŋiri
      some
      kegevemiyizeza
      kegeve=mi=yi=zi=za
      work=IN=CONT=FUT=PATH
      namas
      nama=s
      3PLra=LOC
      zeninoheza
      zeni=no=hi=za
      expectation=COME=POT=PATH
      samas
      sama=s
      3SG.RA=LOC
      delino
      deli=no
      idea=COME
      If he continues to stay near people, he thinks that they will expect that he will continue to make work with them.

      Goleza nara kumu saŋiye, saya kuŋinen zase ŋiri kegeveme.

      goleza
      goli=za
      long.time=PATH
      nara
      nara
      one
      kumu
      kumu
      man
      saŋiye
      sa=ŋi=yi
      3SG.RA=MOVE=CONT
      saya
      sa=ya
      3SG.RA=CAUS
      kuŋinen
      kuŋi=nen
      desire=COM
      zase
      za=se
      3PL.IN=STAY
      ŋiri
      ŋiri
      some
      kegeveme
      kegeve=me
      work=IN
      For a long time he lives as a solitary man, and he works as he wanted.

      Goleza venendanen saŋiyinda sanda laka azis lenese.

      goleza
      goli=za
      long.time=PATH
      venendanen
      venenda=nen
      nobody=COM
      saŋiyinda
      sa=ŋi=yi=nda
      3SG.RA=MOVE=CONT=SRC
      sanda
      sa=nda
      3SG.RA=SRC
      laka
      laka
      hut
      azis
      azi=s
      outside=LOC
      lenese
      lene=se
      pile=STAY
      After a long time living with nobody, there is a pile outside his hut.

      Kozos ŋono pobomoza ŋono pideza ŋono pereteza ŋono muroza saka.

      kozos
      kozo=s
      here=LOC
      ŋono
      ŋono
      many
      pobomoza
      pobomo=za
      spear=PATH
      ŋono
      ŋono
      many
      pideza
      pidi=za
      basket=PATH
      ŋono
      ŋono
      many
      pereteza
      perete=za
      knife=PATH
      ŋono
      ŋono
      many
      muroza
      muru=za
      mat=PATH
      saka
      sa=ka
      3SG.RA=TOUCH
      In there he has many spears, many baskets, many knives, and many mats.

      Linda Poboto, Part 4

      May 20th, 2019 by Sylvia

      And now the conclusion of the story…

      Text and Translation

      Saya evi, “Ŋaya kere ebes linda laki ira.” Naya kere ebes liye ira. Naya liye tene satanda pezes garanen piŋera. Yozonda erenara, naya zosos yereme.

      Besariya marodo tonos liye ira. Maras lira, muros dahidahi liŋi, lidurunulona. Pobotonen rehela lipena.

      He says, “Take my daughter to the sacred pool.” They take me to the sacred pool. They wash the pain from all of my body. The spirits go from there and play elsewhere.

      Uncle sets me on the road to home. I go home, I am lying down on the mat, and my eyes open. I begin to not be sick afterwards.

      Interlinear and Explanation

      Saya evi, “Ŋaya kere ebes linda laki ira.”

      saya
      sa=ya
      3SGra=CAUS
      evi
      e=vi
      3PLin=OUT
      ŋaya
      ŋa=ya
      2PL=CAUS
      kere
      kere
      sacred
      ebes
      ebe=s
      pool=LOC
      linda
      li=nda
      1SG=SRC
      laki
      laki
      daughter
      ira
      i=ra
      3SGan=GO
      He says, “Take my daughter to the sacred pool.”

      Naya kere ebes liye ira.

      naya
      na=ya
      3PLan=CAUS
      kere
      kere
      sacred
      ebes
      ebe=s
      pool=LOC
      liye
      liye
      1SG
      ira
      i=ra
      3SGan=GO
      They take me to the sacred pool.

      Naya liye tene satanda pezes garanen piŋera.

      naya
      na=ya
      3PLra=CAUS
      liye
      liye
      1SG
      tene
      tene
      all
      satanda
      sata=nda
      body=SRC
      pezes
      pezi=s
      away=LOC
      garanen
      gara=nen
      water=COM
      piŋera
      piŋi=ra
      pain=GO
      They wash the pain from all of my body.

      Or, they made the pain go with water from all of my body.

      Yozonda erenara, naya zosos yereme.

      yozonda
      yozo=nda
      there=SRC
      erenara
      erena=ra
      spirits=GO
      naya
      na=ya
      3PLra=CAUS
      zosos
      zoso=s
      somewhere=LOC
      yereme
      yere=me
      game=IN
      The spirits go from there and play elsewhere.

      Besariya marodo tonos liye ira.

      besariya
      besari=ya
      great-uncle=CAUS
      marodo
      mara=du
      home=GOAL
      tonos
      tono=s
      road=LOC
      liye
      liye
      1SG
      ira
      i=ra
      3SGan=GO
      Uncle sets me on the road to home.

      Maras lira, muros dahidahi liŋi, lidurunulona.

      maras
      mara=s
      home=LOC
      lira
      li=ra
      1SG=GO
      muros
      muru=s
      mat=LOC
      dahidahi
      dahidahi
      lying.down
      liŋi
      li=ŋi
      1SG=MOVE
      lidurunulona
      li=durunu=lo=na
      1SG=eyes=UP=START
      I go home, I am lying down on the mat, and my eyes open.

      My eyes open, or I wake up. And eyes is in the dual, too.

      Pobotonen rehela lipena.

      pobotonen
      poboto=nen
      sickness=COM
      rehela
      rehela
      afterwards
      lipena
      li=pe=na
      1SG=FAIL=START
      I begin to not be sick afterwards.

      Or, I begin to fail to be with sickness afterwards.